LITERATURE FORM 3 TOPIC 2

Literature Analysis
Novel Analysis 
 
The Form in House boys
Analyse the Form in House boys
HOUSE BOY
WRITER: FERDINAND OYONO
SETTING: CAMEROON AFRICA
a) Character
Toundi omdoua ( Joseph) house boy
  • He is the main character, who is activity of circumstances of colonial rule in Cameroon
  • He is forced to live away from his family due to both his father harshness and brutality and family poverty
  • He represent poor African children whose life is full of messiness/problems that is from birth to death
  • He reflect child labor and street children in modern society due to family poverty when he works as a house boy oppressed , humiliated, discrimination, exploitation tortured to death
  • He is partially educated but he remained unaccepted as a fellow human being by the whites who is loves and serves them
  • He is baptized as Joseph then became the house boy of new local commandants (head of the government )
Farther Gilbert
  • He is a catholic father , who lives in missionary center
  • He is portrayed as oppression , exploiter that humiliates his house boy (toundi) who is an Africa
  • He portrayed as a racist despite being as a religious
  • He represent all religious leader who are hypocrites that is those who don’t practice what they preach
Father Vandermayer
  • He is the assistant to father Gilbert
  • He took the position of the father Gilbert after his death
  • He is a racist ,exploiter ,oppressor
  • He treats Toundi worse than father Gilbert
  • He also represents hypocritical religious leader
Gullet
  • He is the white chief of police force
  • He is harsh and brutal to Africans
Sophie
  • She is an Africa girl
  • She is agriculture engineer's house girl who not only sleeps with her boss but also a girl friend to the houseboy (Toundi)
  • She steals the agricultural engineer's money and moves to Spain
Madame Suzzy
  • She is commandant's wife and very beautiful who has an extra marital affair with prison director
  • She seems to like commandants
  • At the beginning, she treats Toundi friendly but later miss treat him as an enemy
Toundi father
  • Harsh and brutal to his son
  • He use abusive language
b) LANGUAGE USE/ TECHIQUE
Similes
  • E.g. father Gilbert hair is like the beard of a maize cob
  • E.g. the dog of the king /the commandant like the king
  • E.g. the author in the novel ,the author says toundi was treat like a pet animal by father Gilbert and kicked like a dog by the commandant
Metaphor
  • E.g. Toundi say my ancestors cannibals
  • Sophie herself is called by agriculture engineers my cabbage my chicken
  • Madam refers the African food is an old baboon
Symbolism in characterization
  • father Gilbert is a symbol of colonists with religions goals and Death of symbol of transition from initial colonists
  • Toundi parents are symbol of old generation lost to the colonists
  • Madame/commandant both symbolize the French colonists and colonialism in general
c) TITLE OF THE NOVEL
The title of the novel is just it just like other literature work, the title of " house boy " it standard for symbolism of African country where by other character like father Gilbert e.g. represent white domination, in order to exploit Africa nation
d) SETTING
In the novel of house boy the setting was in Cameroon Africa
X
The Content in House boys
Analyse the Content in House boys
a) Themes
i) Oppression / exploitation
These are among of overriding theme in the book; they are mostly depicted through the main character for example;
  • Father Gilbert used to show sugar lumps to the children the ways people throw come to the children
  • Toundi was not paid
  • Toundi's toured caused his death
  • The servant were given very bad food
ii) Ignorance
The Africans who underwent an act of assimilation was not any use to them, at the first Africans had thought that the white had a very high level of civilazation and that is why some of them were assimilated example Toundi.
iii) Humiliation
  • The French humiliated the black Africans, they claim the Africans to be the French after undergoing the policy of assimilation
  • They don’t pay Toundi as the house boy
  • They tortured toundi until he lost consciousness
  • Father Gilbert also throws sugar lumps to African children as animals or children
iv) Disappointment
  • Toundi is disappointed at last when he discovered that inspite of being assimilated he still despised by whites, he still humiliated, opposed ,exploited by the whites though toundi is honest and respect to them
  • Toundi is blaming himself for his decision of being assimilated and leave away the African tradition ways of life
v) Awareness
Toundi became aware of the French hypocrisy at his bed during his death "he say brother what are we? We blacks who calls our selves French man?" This question shows that finally Toundi has come to discover that the assimilation done to them was full of hypocrisy aimed to facilitate oppression, exploitation, among the Africans
vi) Immorality
This is moral pollution in which there is a tendency of people violating the social norms and going against the moral value.This has seen/shown in the novel in different occasion’s value;
  • The agriculture engineers also makes love with his house girl in secret
  • Father Vandemayar also acts immorally because he treat people against
  • Prostitution has also been revealed in the novel as, discovered that Kalisia used to be a prostitute at the coast
b) MESSAGE
The French colonial administration include the police, the prisons and the police of assimilation and catholic mission (religions) and the white man’s culture are used to oppress, exploit, humiliate and segregate Africans in their own countries.
c) RELEVANCE OF THE NOVEL
The book is relevant to the society due to the following aspect;
  • Some leader parents fail to set good example to the young generation to copy because they are the source of moral decay
  • People have failed to live by what they preach, including the church which is expected to be the savior of humanity ,in sometime leads by hypocrites e.g. father Gilbert
X
The form in the Concubine
Analyse the Form in the Concubine
TITLE ; THE CONCUBINE
AUTHOR ; ELECHI AMADI
SETTING ; NIGERIA ( PRE COLONIAL ERA)
Like other novels, the concubine has many aspects of form that helps to present the themes intended by the artist, the following are some of these aspects of form
THE TITLE OF THE NOVEL
The title of this novel THE CONCUBINE is neither ironical or symbolic there is straight ,it is all about the beautiful , Hard working and courageous women ( Ihuoma ) whom despite her good ways of hiring Ihouma should not be married but she could be someone concubine.
According to the medicine man Anyika, behind this women there is a powerful and dreadful spirit who is the sea king ,such spirit is jealous and kills every human being who dares to marry Ihouma.
SETTING
The novel is set in Nigeria in rural area during pre- colonial era.
PLOT (STRUCTURE)
The author Elechi Amadi has arranged the story into thirty chapter but the flashback style. There is a flashback style for in the beginning of the novel is seen the incident of fighting between Madume and Ihouma ,such incident is fall owed by the death of Emenike, later on the author reveals the origin of Madume and Emanike conflict as well as the secret behind Ememike death.
Therefore regarding this arrangement it can be proved that there is flash back style because the event which were supposed to be at the end of the story have been put in the beginning o the story
THE DICTION (LANGUAGE USE)
The language used is generally simple ,clear, straight forward and it has got some language artistic element such as figure of speech and other language techniques, the figure of speech include simile ,metaphor, personification symbolism and saying etc
Simile (s)
This is a figure of speech in which two basically dissimilar thing are compared by using conjunction such as like, as, as……………….as etc (indirection comparison).
  • Example …………… your foo –foo balls are as big as the head of a baby (pg45)
  • The fresh red earth contrasted strongly with the surrounding, like a big red boil on a black skin (pg19).
Metaphor (s)
This is a figure of speech which compares two basically dissimilar things without the use of conjunction.
  • Example she is the quiet dog that eats up the hen’s egg without a bark (pg157)
  • Ahurole was an unhappy load on his head and he just had carry it (pg140)
Personification
This is a figure of speech where by the human feature characteristic or behavior are attributed to non human being things or object.
  • Example ………. Partridges began to laugh in the near –by (e.g. 140)
  • ……….. Look the sun is going to chiole now (pg 213)
Symbolism (s)
This is a figure of speech whereby something concede is used to symbolize abstract such as idea etc In this novel there are several symbolisms as follows
  • Snake:This has been used to symbolism evil spirit behind Ihuoma, The action of this snake swallowing.
  • An arrow :This symbolism the fight or defeat from the evil spirit ,the action of Nwomas arrow missing and hitting the upper part of Emenikes be basically pg(215) symbolism how the evil spirit is undefeated.
Sayings
Sayings are sentences that people often say that gives advice about something such saying include
  • Death is a bad reaper; often plucking the unripe fruit ( pg34)
  • ……. He who entertains a stranger entertains himself also ( pg 212)
THE CHARACTERS AND CHARACTERIZATION
In this novel we have the following character as follows;
Ihouma
  • She is the main character of the novel
  • She is beautiful ,hardworking and courage women in Omokachi village
  • She lives in good way of having ,she also used to settle quarrels among the women in her village and she offered advice to older women
  • She is Eminikes wife and mother of Nwonna and Azuhunike ,she suffered her husband s death
  • She once rejected Emenike but later on she fell in love with him and she agreed to marry him
  • She has powerful spirit behind her who destroy every man who dares to marry her
  • She protested against the exploitation which was done by the fishermen to the traders.
Ekwueme
  • He is also the main character of the novel
  • He is hardworking supportive short to is family and he is courage character
  • He fell in love to Ihouma ,but when she rejected him he married Ahurole, when his marriage with Ahurole broke he came back Ihuoma and wanted to marry her again.
  • He used to question about exploitation done by fisher man.
Emenike
  • He is Ihuomas husband and father of Nwonna and Azubuike
  • He is among the best wrestler in the village
  • He has a conflicts with Mademe and they had a fight
  • His death is attributed to the spirit behind Ihouma
Nnadi
  • He is Emikes brother and Ihouma brother in law, he is also Mgbachis husband
  • He is hardworking, courageous and supportive character; he supports Ihuomas in every aspect of life.
WIGWE
  • He is adakus husband and Ekwuemes father
  • He once disagreed Ekwuemes marriage proprosal towards Ihouma and he force him to marry Ahurole. Later on he supported the marriage idea between his son and Ihouma
  • He uses to listen and follow the advice given by his wife
Adaku
  • She is Wigwes wife and Ekwuemes mother
  • Like her husband she once disagreed Ekwuenes marriage proposal to marry Ahurole, but later on he supported the marriage idea between her son and Ihouma
  • She has strong convincing power to the men
NWONNA
  • He is Eminike and Ihoumas son
  • He is naught boy and like to be free
  • He accidentally killed Ekwueme when trying to shoot a lizard who was to be used for the sacrifice
NNENDA
  • She is Owhojis wife
  • She loves her neighbour Ihouma and she support her
  • Ekwueme uses her to persuade Ihouma about his marriage proposal but she did not succeed
AHUROLE
  • She is a daughter of wagbar ,she is also Ekwuemes wife
  • She is dull who kept on crying much even for small misunderstanding with her husband ,she believed to have evil spirit in her head
  • Due to her frequent quarrel with her husband, she convinced with her mother to make love position for Ekwueme
  • Her love potion turned Ekwueme mad and due to that her marriage with Ekwueme broke down
NWOKEKERO
  • He is the chief rain maker and the leader of Omakochi village , he iis also the priest of God of thunder and sky
  • He is most respect and feared person in Omokachi
  • He use to conduct sacrifice
X
The Content in the Concubine
Analyse the Content in the Concubine
The concubine contains a variety of themes; the following is a discussion of some of these themes
AFRICA TRADITION
Based on tradition beliefs and other Africa tradition such as traditional dances, food, medicine, time telling, dressing etc,
Traditional beliefs ,belief in which craft example the people of omokachi believed that the divine priest can tell all problems through divination, eg the medicine men Anyika used to divine when different matters were brought to him, for example he divine on the marriage idea between Ihuoma and Ekweume, they also believed that such divination must be paid otherwise they would not be right
Furthermore they believed that when one behaves unusually he must have been bewitched that is when Ekwueme started to behave strangely his parent believed that he was bewitched.
Another traditional belief is that the people in this society believe that there are some people who have got spirit power and that they can communicate with the gods ,e.g. Nwokey is believed that he is spiritual power full enough to control rain in the society
THE QUESTION OF MARRIAGE
In the question of marriage Elechi Amadi has reflected it in different ways. Some of the marriages are stable while others are unstable, for example Wigwe and Adakus marriage is stable also Ogbuji and Okachis and others. On the contrary some are unstable for example Ekwueme and Ahuroles marriage but due to the fact that Ekwueme was forced to marry Ahurole (forced marriage).
It is also clear that in the society given there are polygamy marriage , That that is why once Ihouma told ekwueme that if he does not marry the second wife people will think she is selfish
EXPLOITATION
The fisher used to exploit used to exploit trade who were selling their farm produce at the village market , such Riknos used to buy such products so cheap that the traders got no profit, Ihouma was protesting that to Ekwueme that she had sold twenty prize yams.
DISUNITY
Some people in the society seem to be disunity and that is why they suffer with the problem for exploitation, Ihouma suggest that all the traders must unite and make rules which will help them to overcame the problem of exploitation which is done to them by fisherman but ekewueme said that no rules will work because most of the traders are greedy, this shows that they are disunited.
THE ROLE AND POSITION OF WOMEN
The author has portrayed women in different and various aspects as follow:
  • Women as hard working. Some of the women in the society have been portrayed hard worker example she used to farm hard and she managed to harvest the best yams ever seen in the village. Other women who have been portrayed as hard worker are Nnend and Ahuole.
  • Women as supportive. Women have also been portrayed as supportive i.e. They support others in different and various social activities e,g Ihouma supported Wigwe and Adaku call down Ekwueme until he was proved fine, also Nnenda used to support her neighbour Ihouma.
  • Women as brave, some of the women were brave e.g. aleruchi oji was a brave woman who ever dared to wrestle down her husband.
  • Women as care taker to the family, Ihuoma is a good example she used to care her children even after the death of her husband Emenike, she also once rejected to marry husband compound and to take care of his children left behind inheritance women have always prepared discussion meal for their husband and they had watch on them.
  • Women as weak creature and stupid, women have as portrayed as weak and creature who can’t stand alone and take care of their families, Ogbuji told Nwonna that she would behave like a women that is when he was talking while eating, also Ogbuji regard all women to be fools.
  • Women as advisors, some women have been portrayed to have an ability to advise other even men and can be listen, Adaku advised her husband on different matters, she is the one who advised Wigwe to go to Anyika and see what was behind Ekwueme problem, also Ihouma used to advise other women.
  • Women as quarrels settlers, Ihouma has had ability to settling quarrels among women in the society.
  • Women as witch craft holders, Ahourole and her mother went to Anyika to seek for love potion which would make Ekwueme fall in love to Ahurole heavily.
LOVE AFFAIRS
An author has also reflected love affair put in different ways.some had immoral love affairs while some had formal for example Ihouma and Ekwueme was formal love because they want their love to been official in marriage stage.
PROTEST
In the society some character protected against different and various issues;
  • Ihuoma protested against exploitation which was done by fisherman to them, because fisherman used to buy their products cheaper
  • Ihuoma also protest against the marriage proposal brought to her by Ekwueme but later on she agreed to marry Ekwueme .
  • Ekwueme protest against Anyikas divination that they should not marry Ihuoma for that she is unusual. He also protest against the marriage between him and Ahurole
DISAPPOINTMENT
  • Ekwueme was disappointed when once Ihuoma rejected her in front of his father wigwe ,he was also disappoint when he was to marry Ahurole against his wishes.
  • Ihuoma was disappointed when Ekwueme used to follow her several times at her farm despite Ekwueme marriage with Ahurole
  • Wigwe and Adaku were disappointed when Ekwueme told them that he was not ready to marry Ahurole
  • Nnadi was disappointed when he realized that Madume disturbed Ihouma in the forest
LAND ALIENATION
Madume inherited Ekwueme plot of land something which led into big conflict between them.
CONFLICTS
  • Emenike vs Madume:They had a conflict over land which led them into fight and Madume attracted his open violent later on emeike died of lock chest
  • Madume vs Ihuoma:Ihuoma was harvesting plantain in her husband land but Madume told to care the plantain alone and that is not her land ,Madume also had conflict with Ihouma because she wanted to marry Ihouma but she refused
  • Madume vs village elders:Madume had conflict with village elder i.e. Chima and Webilo who went to settle quarrel between him and his wife but Madume quarreled with them also.
  • Ihouma vs Ekwueme:Ihuoma and Ekwueme had conflict once that is because he wanted Ihuoma for marriage but Ihuoma refused
  • Ekwueme vs Villager especially nwokekoro:Ekwueme was found in the free and was told to descend but he refused till Ihouma was brought.
Question Time 1
Novel question
  1. Discuss form in literature by using novels.
  2. Africa traditions can be bad or good discuss it by using two novels
  3. Themes goes with character discuss it by using relevance information. Many people in today societies have dishonest practices, justify this statement by using two novels you have read.
  4. Discuss conflict from two novels that you have ready
  5. With reference to one novel you have read , explains some of traditional and customs which are not useful to the society
Play Analysis
The Form in the Lion and the Jewel
Analyse the Form in the Lion and the Jewel
TITLE: THE LION AND THE JEWEL
PLAYWRIGTH: WOLE SOYINKA
SETTING: NIGERIA AT ILUNJUNLE VILLAGE
TIME: 1963
CHARACTERIZATION
BAROKA
  • He is the chief of Ilujinle village
  • He is the character who is referred as the lion
  • He is the husband of Sadiku and Ailatu
  • He has conflict with teacher Lakunle because both have been competing to win Sidi's love
  • He has inherited his eldest wife Sadiku from his late father’s Okiki
  • He pretended to be important which led Sidi to go to mock him as the result her virginity has been removed
SIDI
  • She is the character who is termed to be the jewel due to her beauty
  • She has been loved by teacher Lakunle
  • She told teacher Lakunle if he wants to marry her, he should pay her full bride price
  • Her virginity has been removed by chief Baroka when she went to mock him
AILATU
  • She is the youngest wife of chief Baroka
  • She has been given special respect of the youngest wife to pluck armpit
SADIKU
  • She is the eldest wife of Baroka.
  • She has been inherited from Baroka father called Okiki who just failed to remove her virginity
  • She has been sent by her husband to seduce Sidi to be the wife of her husband
LAKUNLE
  • He is a teacher
  • He doesn’t like to pay bride price, this lead to failure to marry Sidi
  • He is irresponsible teacher as he has left his students in the class and went to seduce Sidi
  • He had conflict with chief Baroka because all have been competing for Sidi
OKIKI
  • He is Baroka's father
  • He has married Sadiku but he has failed to remove her virginity, Sadiku later has been inherited by Baroka
TITLE
The title of the play the lion and the jewel, The title is symbolic because lion means the good animal hunting other animals. In this play Baroka stand as the lion as he is hunting for Sidi and jewel means precious mental like diamond jewel is used to symbolize a beautiful girl called Sidi who is the virgin.
SETTING
The setting of the play is in Nigeria at Ilunjinle village where women have been oppressed by being married in polygamy and set to seduce women for their husband example Baroka who sent Sadiku to go to seduce Sidi to be his youngest wife ,the setting of Nigeria has been used as the representative of other places in the world where there are oppressed.Within the story there other minor physical setting which are as follows:
  • The physical setting where Baroka is seen in his room with his wife , Ailatu plucking Baroka’s armpit hair, through this setting convey the themes that women are object of entertainment
  • The physical setting where Lakunle teaching his student in the classroom going to seduce the beautiful girl called Sidi , through this physical setting the writing has used to convey the theme that some teacher like Lakunle are irresponsible
LANGUAGE USE
a) Symbols
  1. Sadiku unopened treasure house this symbolize virginity to Sadiku which Okiki failed to remove and still claimed to be her husband, through this symbol conveys the theme of oppression of women
  2. Okiki rusted key said by Sadiku to Sidi to symbolize male reproductive organ of Okiki which seems to be too old thus why he failed to remove. Sadiku virginity ,This symbolize convey the theme oppression of women
  3. The action of Lakunle to agree to marry Sidi, Even though she is no longer a virgin symbolize moral decay into real society where many women are married but they are no longer virgin.
  4. The action of Sidi to praise the old man Baroka after removing her virginity and refusing to go to young men like Lakunle symbolize the importance of virginity in the society to help to keep faithful in the marriage.
b) Metaphor
  1. This is seen through Lakunle when he say to Sidi ( romance is the sweetening of the soul age) this metaphor convey the theme of love which Lakunle had to Sidi
  2. Baroka says to Sidi I told Sadiku my faithful lizard that I’m Important
  3. I knew she could not keep the secrets through this metaphor convey the message in the society that women cannot keep secret
b) Irony
  1. It is seen when Sidi who expected Baroka is importance that is why she agreed cheaply to send her virginity to Baroka , Baroka removed Sidi's virginity it convey the message of hypocrisy in the society
  2. Another irony is seen through sadiku who expected Baroka is importance ,this led her to assure sidi to go to mock Baraka through this irony conveys the themes of betray which is done by different people in the society.
d) Euphemism
  1. This is shown through Sadiku word to Sidi when she told her the way she scotched Okiki she say Sadiku’s unopened treasure house demanded scarifies Okiki came with his rusted key and went back like a rag (pg 32).through this euphemism convey the message of oppression of women through the failure of Okiki to remove Sadiku’s virginity.
e) Hyperbole
  1. This is shown through Lakunle who said to Sidi, my heart burst into flower with my love (pg6) this hyperbole convey the message of love which Lakunle has to Sidi.
  2. Another hyperbole is seen when Lakunle said to Sidi “Sidi swear you will be my wife and I will stand against earth, Heaven and nine hells (pg6)” through this hyperbole shown the theme of love which Lakunle wise to Sidi.
f) Under statement
  • It is seen when Lakunle say to Sidiku though you are nearly seventy your mind is simple and unformed (pg37), This understatement has been used to show that changes in any society is possible however much people are old.
g) Imagery
  1. Image of love is seen when Lakunle says to Sidi that my heart burst into flower with my love ,through this imagery conveys the theme of love .
  2. Image of oppression of women in the society which is seen through Okiki who failed to remove Sadiku’s virginity but He claimed her to be his wife.
  3. Image of love is also seen through the voice of Sidi while making love with Baroka, Sidi sings yokolu yokolu, okoyoke … (pg 44).
h) Proverb
  1. I cannot make myself a cheap bowl for the village (pg7) that proverbs is used to means that Sidi can not give herself to every man.
  2. Example “Old wine thrives within a new Bottle”.
i) Personification
  1. This seen through Lakunle when he says heaven strike me deal earth open and swallow Lakunle (pg60) through this personification convey the theme of disappointment.
  2. Sidi says heaven forgive you do you scorn child bearing in a Wife (pg8) this personification convey the message into the society that People should marry for the sake of life and not for Children so as to avoid conflict when it happens one between the two is unable to bear Children.
PLOT
The plot is chronological which has involved the use of some flash backs and fore shadowing
  1. Flash back is seen when Okiki Sadiku says Okiki failed to remove her virginity through this flash back convey the theme of oppression
  2. Used of fore shadowing,Is seen when Lakunle predicted that Baroka is not important and later Baroka , Removes Sidi’s virginity this fore shadowing conveys the message not be hyperbole like Sidi who has gone to mock Baroka.
X
The Content in the Lion and the Jewel
Analyse the Content in the Lion and the Jewel
THEMES
Oppression and humiliation of women
This is shown though Baroka who is married in polygamy and using his youngest wife to pluck his armpit hair which is regarded as the special ,also oppression of women is shown by Baroka by sending Sidi to be Barokas wife.
Betrayal
It occurs in the following aspect:
  • Sadiku has betrayed her husband Baroka by going to expose the secret of impotence of Baroka to Sidi .
  • Lakunle has betrayed his custom and traditions after being educated he refused to pay bride price of Sidi as he says paying bride price is implying to buy a woman.
  • Sidi has betrayed Lakunle by expecting to marry him but later she refuses to marry Lakunle and married Baroka the man who has removed her virginity.
  • Betrayal is shown through Lagos women who are using lip sticks and wearing heeled shoes by doing so they are betraying their culture.
Role and position of women
  • Women are oppressed class this is shown through Sadiku who has been sent by her husband to seduce Sidi to became Baroka’s youngest wife.
  • Women are objects of Entertainment, this is shown through Baroka who uses his youngest wife Ailatu to entertained him by plucking his armpit hair.
  • Women are defending their culture , this is seen through Sidi who refused to be kissed by Lakunle which implies western culture
  • Women are oppressed class; this is shown through Sadiku who has been sent by her husband to seduce Sidi to become Baroka youngest wife.
  • Women are ignorant, this shown by sadiku who mites said she could not read and write.
  • Women have no common stand, This is shown by Sidi whom at first she accepted to marry Lakunle but later she refused him and marry Baroka.
True love
This is shown by Lakunle who agreed to marry sidi even after Baroka removed Sidi’s virginity, Lakunle says to Sidi my love to you is not the love of the flesh it is love of the soul.
Conflict
It occurred in the following aspect:
  • Sidi against Lakunle because Lakunle doesn’t want to pay bride price Sidi.
  • Sadiku against Lakunle because Sadiku claims that Lakunle has taught Sidi to refuse to marry Baroka by claiming that Baroka is older than Sidi.
  • Baroka against Lakunle, Because Lakunle want to marry Sidi the girl who is also loved by Baroka.
Protest
  • This shown through Sidi who has been protesting the idea of western culture to be kissed by Lakunle she says it is unclean
  • Also Sidi protected the idea of Lakunle to marry her without the bride price because that would means that she has no virgin
  • Lakunle protested the customs and tradition of paying the bride price
Protest
  • This shown through Sidi who has been protesting the idea of western culture to be kissed by Lakunle she says it is unclean
  • Also Sidi protected the idea of Lakunle to marry her without the bride price because that would means that she has no virgin
  • Lakunle protected the customs and tradition of paying the bride price
Hypocrisy
  • This is shown through Baroka who pretend to be importance which has led Sidi to go mock him as a result she has been removed her virginity.
  • Also hypocrisy is shown by Sidi having heard that Baroka is importance she has gone to mock her which cause her virginity to be removed.
  • Hypocrisy is also shown by Sadiku who pretend to be sorry after Baroka to tell her is importance but later she has gone to tell Sidi happily to go mock Baroka.
Bad customs and traditions
This is seen when the villagers of Ilunjike beliefs that a man who has removed the virginity of a girl is the one who suppose to marry her, this what has affected Sidi whose her virginity has been removed by old man Baroka who later married her.
Polygamy
This is shown in the play though Baroka who has married many wives Sadiku and Ailatu later Sidi.
Alienation
This is shown in the play through Lakunle who has alienated himself from his society after being educated by refusing to pay bride price.
MESSAGE
  • Love doesn’t ask why Lakunle vs. Sidi
  • Don’t trust women, e.g. Lakunle was betrayed by Sidi
  • Be a good leader to solve people's problem and not to solve your only problem e.g. Baroka.
RELEVANCE OF THE PLAY TO OUR SOCIETY
We have leaders in Tanzania who use their power to humiliate other people. The police officers are good examples of people who use their power to punish those who compete with them in love. The issue of dowry payment is common to most of the African families. There are people who have failed to marry the girls they love due to lack of money to pay bride price.
There is a tendency of old people in our society to be in love with young girls. This has partly been contributed by poverty and influence of money and power. The rate of young girls engaging in love with old men is increasing in different parts of the country. Changes in any community are inevitable, yet there are people who are conservative and reluctant to accept new changes, especially the old generation. Polygamy and prostitution are common practices in our society. People are not faithful to their lovers.
X
The Form in the Trial of Bother Jero
Analyse the Form in the Trial of Bother Jero
TITLE: THE TRIAL OF BROTHER JERO
PLAYWRIGTH: WOLE SOYINKA
SETTING: MORDEN AFRICA RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY
TIME : 1964
INTRODUCTION
  • Brother Jero is a false /fake prophets
  • He users his position to deceive, Exploit, oppress his followers due to their ignorance e.g. Chume and Amope worshippers
  • Therefore brother Jero does not only represent evil religious leader but also political leader in Africa who are not transparent honest and accountable to their people
CHARACTER AND CHARACTERIZATION
Brother Jero or Jero boam
  • The mains or central character
  • He is the man, good personality with power in speech
  • He is a beach divine lacking church preceding bin the open in the public
  • Brother Jero is a womanizer who is always after women
  • He is a false prophet
  • He represents not only fake religious leader but also political leaders in Africa
Amope
  • She is Chume wife
  • She is a petty trader who earns a living from her small trade
  • She present all those who are discriminated oppressed and exploited in the world
  • She is a strong and courageous women
  • She represents conscious women who can differentiate between right and wrong value in the society
Chume
  • He is a husband of Amope
  • He is chief message in the local government office
  • He is assistant to brother Jero in the religious matter in the church
  • He represents devoted Christians
  • He represents ignorant people in the society
  • He is poor and petty because of ignorance and laziness
Fish seller / fish monger / women trader
  • She is a poor women who lives by selling fish
  • She represents all petty trader who works in difficult condition such as food vendors
  • She is in conflict with Amope
Drummer boy
  • He is poor beggar who lives by begging
  • He represent all poor people in any society
  • Such people are sometimes forgotten and neglected in our societies
Member of parliament ( mp)
  • This is a politician who got minister post and political Fame from Brother Jero’s Prayers.
  • He is a lazy Leader, He always sit at back bencher.
Worshippers
  • These are jero’s followers who are ignorant
  • They trust brother Jero in all aspects
  • They do not know that brother Jero is a Liar, Exploiter, Oppressor and Hypocrite.
Neighbors’
  • They are ignorant people
  • They also lazy
  • They think their success comes as result of religious miracles
  • They are also represent the society on the public that thinks that success comes as a result religious miracles
SETTING
The play is set in Nigeria in urban area during pre - colonial era
THE TITLE OF THE PLAY
The title of this play " the trial of brother Jero " it reflects Africa religions which emerged nowadays because of private gain, e.g.Brother Jero represents fake Prophets, who use religions matter to gain wreath and fame,
LANGUAGE USE
  • Use of biblical words
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The Content in the Trial of Bother Jero
Analyse the Content in the Trial of Bother Jero
THEMES
Misuse of religion
The play has shown that some people like brother Jero, misuse religion to exploit, the ignorant mass that cannot notice their malicious promises and advice which is geared towards their own economic gain and social welfare
Betrayal
In the play we see brother Jero betrayed old prophet who teaches him to became a prophet by chasing him out of the land at the beach, Jero then takes ownership of the land and establish his church , also brother Jero betray his own profession by going against the ethics of his religions
Exploitation
Brother Jero uses people to exploited them because they provide him money ,and even sometimes he called this worshipers my customer because he get money from them. In addition brother Jero buys velvet cup from Amope on credit promoting her that he would pay her within a few days ,But time comes he seems reluctant to pay Amope.
Hypocrisy
In this play hypocrisy is portrayed by brother Jero who deceives people that he is poor, while he has five houses and a true prophet, he said that he is prophet by birth and inclination
  • Brother Jero deceive Chume that he will be promoted to another high rank with a better income through prayer
Oppression
In the play Amope is oppressed by brother Jero, this is shown when he refuses to pay the money he won her at the right time because he believe that a women is weak
  • In addition Amope is also seen oppressed by her husband , this is seen when Chume forces her to go back home with the intention of beating her when he reaches home.
Ignorance
Ignorance means lack of knowledge information and conscious in this play worshipers are ignorant because they don’t understand that brother Jero was a liar and a womanizer and a false prophet also ignorance is portrayed through Amope and her husband (Chume) as well as the women trader (fish monger) .
Conflict
Conflict refers to the misunderstanding between two opposite side or more or is a quarrel fight disagreement misunderstand in interests between people or group.There are lots of conflicts in the play as follows:
  • There is conflict between the old prophet and brother Jero: The conflict occurs when brother Jero succeed in getting a land offer from the local government and decide to chase away the old prophet
  • There is a conflict between Amope and her husband (Chume): This is a family conflict, the conflict is due to difficulties that they face in life and Chumes lack moral and tolerance to Amope
  • There is a conflicts between Amope and women trader ( fish monger), when passing with a basket of fish on her head , Amope calls her so that he can buy fish while assisting her to put down the basket to contracting with fish. Amope notice a bad smell from fish and despises the fish so as to influence a discount ,the women trader say that smell doesn’t come from fish instead it is Amope herself who has not taken a shower for some days mistreatment result into a big quarrel between them.
The position and the role of a women
  • Women are portrayed as wicked, they are compared with Eve, Delilah and Jezebel from the reference made by brother Jero.It seems that women do lead men to commit sins as brother Jero comments on discussing girl who tend to be naked before him.
  • African women are also are portrayed as ignorant, oppressed and humiliated as seen in the play by what brother Jero does to Amope , he takes a velvet cup from her credit promising to play money in few days later. Amope it also oppressed by her husband, this is seen when Chume forces her to go back home with an intention of beating her when he reachs home.
MESSAGE
  • Don’t trust anyone in terms of money e.g. brother Jero
  • Be aware of fake prophet
  • Be a good leader not a lazy leader e.g. MP
Question Time 2
Plays question
  1. The author intends something to the society discuss?
  2. Each play contains characters that creates a certain message in the society, discuss by using two plays.
  3. Figure of speech certain some message /theme in the society discuss.
  4. Discuss message from two themes that you have been ready.
  5. Elaborate four element in the form by using two plays you have read
  6. By using two play you have done under this section ,explain how setting of the play correspond with themes
Poetry Analysis
Lost Beauty Poem
Poem analysis in Lost Beauty
LOST BEAUTY by Jwani Mwaikusa
POEM ANALYISIS
a)What is about poem?
The poem is about a man is looking for a black women to marry but finds that there is no black one. This man fails to marry because everywhere around him are females .It is for this reasons that this men cries because the beauty (blackness) that he want is not seen , in other words the poem is about a man who want looks for Africans women who keeps Africa tradition but doesn’t see any .That is to say the poem is about the lost culture or one identify.
b) Who is the persona in this poem?
The persona in this poem is the African man who is not happy because he fail to find an Africa girl who is real black(Africa), he fails to see any.This man end up weeping as he realize later that he saw neither black and his eyes can’t see anything black. So the persona in this poem is an Africa man who blames the black sister for losing their culture and then recognizes that he also lost his own identity.
c) What is the structure of the poem?
The poem is made up with 4 stanza.The first and the second stanza have 7 verse each .The third stanza has 6 verse whereas the fourth stanza has 8 verse
d) What is the structure of the poem?
This is a lyric poem because the persona expresses his deep feelings towards the lost beauty he is looking for.
e) What is the mood of the persona in the poem?
Mood being the feeling, the persona in the poem is in sad mood that makes him became angry with the loss of African beauty .In his sad mood he blames the black sisters.
f) What is the tone of the persona in the poem?
Tone being the voice the persona's tone is serious , he speaks with seriousness to the points that he shout and sing to ensure that what he want to deliver is heard ,it is this tone makes him cry at the very end of the poem for he finds that all his struggles end up in vain ,this tone is what makes him in a bad and grief mood.
g) Identify the figure of speech used in the poem.
  • Alliteration: In this poem alliteration has been used in the following verse"… a black beauty queen and bare breast bouncing".The aim of this poetic device in this poem is to add musical quality. It is a musical device that enables the poem to be sung. All poem are written to be sung, thus feature like alliteration add musical quality to poem.
  • Simile: This is a literary device that compares two dissimilar things using conjunction namely as…as such as e.t.c in the poem the speaker speaks with similes as he say "and a face dark as the night" In the simile above, the persona describe the woman should have the black face resembling to the night (darkness)
  • Symbolism are words or object that send for a particular meaning behind their dictionary meaning.Example; Black color /skin = African culture, Mask =foreign culture which some African try to imitate, Lost beauty=lost culture,The black tongue=African language,Awful fakes of white females=African women who decorate their skin to look like European
h) What are possible themes in this poem?
In this poem LOST BEAUTY comprises of several theme some of them include the following:
  • African culture, in the poem is proud of African culture. He like an African women / black woman and is disgusted with the white mask only sees. The persona pride to his own culture is vividly seen when he praises blackness.
  • Racial discrimination, the persona shows racial discrimination when he wants only black skinned women, he does not like white women , this makes him cry after his effort to regulate the minds of black sister have proved ineffective
  • Intra–personal conflict, this is the conflict that occurs within the individual himself/herself. In the poem the persona is in intrapersonal conflict because he fails to get the black woman whom he wants thus he is unhappy because he doesn’t know what to do.
i) Relevance of the poem to our contemporary social
The poem LOST BEAUTY is relevant to our contemporary society because of its themes, it shows the way people (Africans) have lost their culture as well as patriotism , many people in Tanzania today prefer Europeans things such as European goods like cosmetics, dressing style, dances, European language just to mention a few.
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Africa Poem
Poem analysis in Africa
AFRICA by David Mandessi Diop
What is this poem about?
The poem is about identity ,the personal identifies himself as an African born who struggles to search for his original homeland which is Africa.
b) Who is the persona?
The persona in this an Africa man who looks for his identity ,he seems to have been far when he hears about Africa for the first time ( from his grandmother who sing in the distant river) as he comes into contract with African he does not believe to find it being in slavery, working, and sweating for slave masters.
c) What type of poem is this?
This is a lyric poem because inside the persona express his feeling towards Africa , it is the feeling that comes from deep inside his heart .Also based on rhymes this is a free verse poem because it has irregular rhyming pattern ,it is a modern poem that does not follow the traditional conventional rules of writing.
d) What is the structure of this poem?
The poem is made up with three stanza and second stanza have 6 verse each ,the third stanza is the largest of all for it consists of 12 verse.
e) What is the mood of the persona?
The persona mood is sympathetic about Africa. The persona is greatly disappointed with the backwardness and slavery of Africa; it is a painful mood which is clearly shown in the third stanza where the persona witnesses the beauty blood of Africa irrigating the fields.
f) What is the tone of persona?
Similar to the mood, the personas tone is sympathetic and pitiful as well tone being the voice quality.
g) Comment on the language /diction used in this poem
The poem has used simple language in writing this poem and contains the following poetic feature:
  • Personification, this is a figure of speech/literary device in which inanimate object is given attribute in the poem Africa has been given the attributes of possessing a back and blood as if it were a human being as the persona say "I have never known you, but your blood flows in my vein",Another personification is seen when the person forces Africa to speak as he says "Africa tell me",Again personification is seen when the persona say he make conversation with grave voice "but a grave voice answers me".
  • Alliteration, the poet has used alliteration in the poem in the following Your beautiful black blood (stanza2 1st verse)That tree there (3rd stanza, 8th verse).
  • Parallelism is the use of sentence/verse having the same structure length ,in the poem parallelism is seen in the following verse Africa of …… Africa of …… And also this back..... this back
  • Anaphora this is repletion of the words at the beginning of the consecutive lines / verse. In the poem anaphora has been used in the first three stanza where the word Africa has been repeated in the 3 consecutive verse as the poet writes "Africa my Africa", "Africa of proud warrior I the ancestral savannah", "Africa of whom my grandmother sings".
Symbolism is the use of words or things that stand for other thing, these things/word that stand for other thing are known as symbols this poem has several symbols as follow as:
  • Red scars stand for humiliation and torture done to Africa children ,they are scars of colonialism ( effects of colonialism) that are evident in the language we use in teaching and the foreign names that we call each other
  • Young and strong tree is the symbol of independent Africa which needs to be nurtured /cared well so that it may grow. As it is young and strong ,it stands for new generation of Africa
  • Grandmother stands for the old generation that plays a guiding role to the young generation ,in this poem grandmother sing from a distant river ,it is from these song that the persona gets to understand Africa
  • Grave voice symbolize Africa ancestors and ancestress, it is this voice that gives the persona an answer to a series of question he asks about Africa, these are dead fore fathers whom in Africa philosophy, they are believed to be alive and accompanying the society
  • A tree in spending loneliness stand for Africa as only continent left behind in term of development despite the resources it has got.
h)Themes
  • Identity this is the central theme in poem, Africa the persona identifies himself as an Africa. He belongs to Africa. his belongingness to Africa is immediately seen in the first verse of the first stanza as he says "Africa is my Africa".Also identify children of Africa as slaves, the persona sees them being in slavery working, irrigating the field and receiving the whips under the midday sun. This is their indentity ,they are identified as slave and not as masters. This identity is evident in the following verse "the work of your slavery" and "the slavery of your children …".
  • Exploitation ,Africa children are exploited as they worked in daylight, they are whipped and over worked but nobody pays them, they also irrigate the field which do not belong to them.This is evident in the following verse of the poem "Your beautiful black blood that irrigates the field","The blood of your sweat"," The sweat of your work","The work of your slavery","The slavery of your children"
  • Neocolonialism this is seen when the persona say that "a new tree that grows again is also going to have fruits with bitter taste of liberty", this neocolonialism it was excepted that this young tree ( which is new independent Africa) could have fruits with sweet test but the gradual acquisition of bitter taste means Africa (new tree) will remain the same as it was during colonialism as show in the following verse
  • Patriotism in the poem the persona shows patriotic feeling to the continent of Africa , he show that he had never know Africa but feels connected to it ,so the persona is a patriotic African patriotism in the poem is clearly shown as the persona says " I have never known you"," But your bloods flow in my veins"
i)What messages do we learn from poem?
  1. Neo-colonialism retard development and makes people not to enjoy freedom, in the poem the speaker is unhappy because even the new tree is going to acquire bitter taste of liberty. this mean he will not enjoy the fruits of liberty because the fruits are going to have bitter test which is unpleasant
  2. It is importance to find ones origin the speaker in the poem travel a long journey to find Africa where by a grave voice show him where Africa is ( his origin)
  3. Everyone should be proud of his home/origin or continent the persona is proud of Africa.
  4. Old generation has a role to teach young generation to know their origin .in the poem the persona is guided by grandmother and grave voice ,the represent old generation.The personal represent the new generation.
j)Is the poem relevance to your society?
The poem, Africa is relevant to our society because all themes being discussed are also found in our society (Tanzania and Africa at large). The title of the poem s Africa to mean all countries of Africa in which there is neocolonialism , also in Africa some citizen are patriotic so does the persona in the poem ,again in Africa there are torture , exploitation and lack of freedom due to neo-colonialism in short all what the persona talk about relate Africa there the poem is relevant.
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The Dying Child Poem
Poem analysis in the Dying Child
THE DYING CHILD by Peter Lambwa
POEMS ANALYISIS
What is a poem about?
The poem is about poverty and its effects to the people in the society. The poet talks about the boy who is suffering due to life hardship. it is the boy who is disappointed with the existing system and condition (poverty) in which he lives ,it is the poem talking about two people , a boy and his mother being in dilemma on what to do in order to have better life .the boy proposes to carry a gun whereas his mother tell him to find food ( meat) first , so the poem is about the way poverty can confusion and disappointment to people , the mother is so disappointed that her child will never live , he will soon die since there is no meat ( food) to feed him
Is the poems title related to issues being discussed in the poem?
The title of the poem related directly to the issues raised inside the poem ,the title is the dying child in which there is really a boy dying in the first stanza we are told that the boy in is thin has swollen stomach thin legs and he groans on the ground. All these are symptoms of indicators that the boy will soon die, so he actually a dying child the boy dearth is father insisted by his own mother who tell the boy in the second stanza ,that he will never live to carry gun.
Who is the persona in this poem?
The persona in this poem is someone outside the poem who observes the child.In this observation, the persona discovers that the boy has been affected by poverty where he has thin arms and legs, the swollen stomach that inside is full of waste. This condition makes the persona conclude that this is a dying child.
What is types of poem this?
Based on what the poem is about ,this is a lyric poem whereby persona express pitiful feeling to the child ,the way persona describe the boy s situation in the first stanza ,and the way he states that the boy is a slave of unbalanced body whereas legs are thin is stomach is swollen. Based on rhyming patterns this is a modern poem / a free verse poem simply because it has irregular rhyming patterns i.e. it does not rhyme
What is a mood of the persona?
Since mood is the feeling .the personas mood is sympathetic .He feels pity and he is sorrowful to the boys misfortune of being poor living with no food,thus becoming like a prisoner of his own body , hence the persona mood is pitiful and sorrowful towards the child who is dying .He feels compassion of the boy.
What is the tone of the persona in the poem?
The persona tone (voice) is filled with emotions .He express the boy’s condition in a way that reveals him feeling unhappy with the boy’s condition. This being a lyric poem the persona tone show his sympathetic feeling to the child who is dying
What is the structure of poem?
The poem is made of two poem stanza which differs in length. The first stanza consist of 10 verse , whereas the second stanza has 14 verse .Each stanza comprises a considerable number of long and short sentences .Some verse are just made of a word,such verse add musical quality to the poem ,hence making it more suitable to be read aloud
Comment on the language (diction) in the poem.
The language used in this poem is very emotional, it is the language whose word provoke emotion ,it is a language whose words such as thin skinny bald and swollen stomach enable the reader to get a mental picture of the child who is dying .the poem use the following figure of speech such as follows:
  • Alliteration, this is the repetition of the first consonant sound at the beginning of consecutive words, in the poem there is alliteration in the 4th verse of the 1st stanza where the poet writes Swollen stomach This repletion in this poem is very importance for it to make the poem to be sung.
  • Hyperbole, this refers to the literary device in which the fact is exaggerated ,in the poem the poet writes exaggerated
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The Poor Woman Poem
Poem analysis in the Poor Woman
POOR WOMAN by Jwani Mwaikusa
POEM ANALYSIS
Who is the persona in the poem? (who is speaking in this poem) /who is the addresser?
The persona is someone outside the poem, who is observing the woman and realizes that the woman is ignorant (poor) for she kills her child due to her ignorance. Thus, the persona is someone who wonders at a poor woman who feeds her child fake foods and destroys him unknowingly.
Who is a speaking to/who is the addressee?
The addressee is a black woman whose child has lost life after she has fed him foreign foods, which the persona calla “faked foods”. So the addressee is a woman who is crying after committing the murder unknowingly.
What is the poem about?
The poem is about an African woman who due to her ignorance kills her child with artificial food from Europe. It is about a woman who lives in the jungle (thick forests) where there is plenty of wild honey which is nutritious for the growth of her child but instead of being given this honey, the child is given powdered milk and sugar crystals that take away his life. In other words, the poem is about a black woman who kills her child by teaching him foreign culture instead of her of her own culture. It is a poem of a woman who cries after misleading her child. Sometimes the poem’s title can give a clue to what is the poem about thus giving opportunity to a reader’s mind to predict what is being discussed inside the poem. Therefore, the poem’s title “POOR WOMAN” gives a clue to a reader that is being discussed in the poem is about a woman who is said to be poor.
What is the persona’s mood in the poem?
The persona’s mood is angry. He is angry with the poor woman who cries after murdering her child with faked foods. The persona’s anger is vividly seen when he tells a woman that she is responsible for the child’s loss of life and therefore she must weep with him.
What is the persona’s tone in the poem?
By definition, tone is the quality of somebody’s voice, especially expressing a particular emotion. Tone slightly differs from mood in the sense that while mood is the feeling, tone is the voice. However, the two relate under the fact that tone can help one to detect somebody’s mood. Since poems are primarily written to be sung, thus when we read a poem what comes into our mind is the voice of the speaking person (persona) in that particular poem. As we hear one’s voice (tone), we can determine the feeling (mood) in which that person is Therefore, the persona’s tone in the poem “POOR WOMEN” is the tone of surprise that brings anger (makes the persona become angry with the poor women). It is the tone of surprise where the persona wonders at the poor woman. This surprise is clearly seen in the choice of words such as “now you cry”, “now you lament”, “you refused him your breast”, “and your heart glowed” etc. These words show the surprise that the persona gets as he looks at the poor woman.
What type of poem is this?
This is a lyric poem simply because it is a poem in which the persona expresses his feelings towards a woman. As he sees the woman crying, the persona recalls the past deeds of this woman and gets the feelings which make him conclude that the woman is poor (ignorant). Lyric is a song like poem written mainly to express the feelings of emotions or thought from a particular person.
Comment on the diction employed in the poem
Diction means the choice and arrangement (use) of words. In order to present effective message, the choice and arrangement of words (diction) is very crucial and therefore should be given serious consideration. In the poem, “POOR WOMAN”, the diction concurs with the context and the subject matter that the persona talks about, Words such as weep, murder, suffer, forget, poor woman and the like, give a clue to a reader on what the poem is about. To be brief, the poet has used the words that exactly match with the topic he writes about. It is about a woman who has forgotten the nutritious foods and murders her child with faked foods that makes the poor woman weep on seeing her child suffering. So the poem concurs to the subject matter being discussed in the poem.
What are the possible themes in this poem?
This poem contains several themes such as;
Ignorance
Ignorance is the lack of knowledge or information about something. In the poem, the black woman is ignorant. She does not know the advantages of natural foods such as wild honey and breast feeding to the health of her child. She thinks that foreign foods such as sugar crystals and powdered milk are appropriate to her child. It is due to this ignorance that the woman finds herself murdering (killing) her child with foreign foods unknowingly. The woman’s ignorance is seen when she feeds her child inappropriate foods while feeling happy. This is revealed by the persona when he reminds the woman in the following verses;
  • In our society, there are people who due to their ignorance end up getting health problems because of praising European foods, and medicines.
Illusion
This is the tendency of developing a particular dream (hope) which can be fulfilled (attained) or not. In the poem, the black woman is having the illusion that her child will be strong and healthy by feeding him foreign foods such as powdered milk and sugar crystals. The woman’s illusion is well described by the person who tells her the following words;
The verses above show the poor woman becoming happy as she feeds her baby the faked food. Her happiness shows the illusion she has. She expects the food to make the baby strong. This hope becomes a failure as the baby ends in problems. The foods kill him and the woman ends into crying.
Malnutrition
It is the failure to live on balanced diet. In the poem, the baby suffering from malnutrition because its mother ref uses to give it breast feeling. She refuses even to feed it the wild honey which is plenty in the jungle the surrounds the poor woman’s society, instead the woman feeds her kid the foods that destroy him. Malnutrition in the poem is seen when the persona says;
These verses give the evidence that the child suffers from malnutrition which has been caused by his mother’s ignorance and that is why the persona calls it murder (intentional killing) that the woman has committed. The persona believes that the poor woman is responsible for the boy’s condition of having poor health, thus tell her to weep and suffer together with the child.
Betrayal
It means acting contrary to what people expect of you. In the poem the poor woman shows betrayal to her own custom. She has betrayed her societal custom of child caring by neglecting
Question Time 3
Poems questions
  1. Discuss conflict from 4 poems
  2. Discuss form from one of the poem above
  3. Explain figure of speech from poems above
  4. Use any two poems you have read under this section to show their relevance to the society ( give six points with concrete example )
  5. The art of poetry is not developed in vacuum ,show the validity of the statement using four poem you have done

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