PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM
Teacher education-refers to the policies and procedures design to equip prospective teachers or standards teachers in order to produce teachers with the knowledge skills, attitudes and behaviour. They task effectively in teaching profession.Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities between teacher education and training
Teacher training refers to activities that involve training staff to undertake relatively routines tasks (monotonous tasks). This term seems to be losing its ground/ popularity in teaching profession
Teacher education is broader than teacher training and it refers to preparation of staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioners.
Teacher training-is the narrow concept of producing teacher with some skills to be acquired.
Teacher education is broader than teachers training and it refers to preparation of staff.
Teacher education i.e. Diploma, certificate and degree is divided into three categories namely;
Pre-service education training (PRESET)
In-service education training (INSET)
These are teacher programmes before entering the teaching profession as a full responsible professional teacher e.g. diploma, certificate and degree. In Tanzania teacher education curriculum consists of three components namely;
1. Academic component or subjects of specialization.
This focuses on providing sufficient knowledge in order to teach learners. This answers the question of ―what to teach‖.
2. Methodological or professional component.
The focus is providing education student teacher with knowledge and skills. The emphasis is on the strategies and techniques. It involves interaction, psychology, management, philosophy and curriculum as well as media and technology.
3. General courses.
In this we have general studies (GS) and computer skills.
There is a need for professional teachers to undergo teaching practice.
This is the process whereby a prospective teacher exercises the work of teaching in order to become a qualified and competent teacher. It is done to translate into practice the theoretical concepts and insist gained from academic and pedagogical competences acquired by students‘ teacher during classroom sessions.
SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHING PRACTICE;
1. It helps prospective teachers to gain confidence and experiences of teaching.
2. It helps them to use teaching and learning methods they acquired.
3. It helps to find the problem area.
T.P arouses interest in teaching professional careers.
TYPES OF T.P
It is categorized into;
2. Single lesson teaching practice,
3. Block teaching practice, and
4. Group teaching practice,
This is scaled down version of a real teaching that aims at teaching student teachers specific skills by practicing the teaching process on their peer/learners (small group). Tutors observe and clarify mistakes.
The Essence of Micro-Teaching
Dominant models of teacher education accord micro-teaching a central place. Its place as an essential part of teacher education curriculum dates back to the early 1960’s as a result
of the efforts of Professor Dwilight Allen and his colleagues at Stanford University in England. Their aim was to ensure an adequate combination of theory and practice in the training of teachers and through this develop in the prospective teachers‘ desirable skills and competencies.
Moore (2005), while discussing the importance of micro-teaching agrees that it simplifies the task of teaching by sub-dividing the act of teaching which is multifaceted into simpler, less complex tasks in such a way that lessons can be better managed and to focus on a few major skills in the planning process. Tara (2004) is of the view that micro-teaching is an effective device FOJ; modifying the behaviours of teachers under training as it is a highly individualized type of teacher training technique. Moreover, it is useful for pre-service and in-service teacher training where teachers can improve their competencies. In the same vein, Syed and Zaid (2005), states that micro-teaching is a stimulated social skill development process aimed at providing feedback to teachers for modification of their behaviour. He concludes that it is a clinical teaching programme organized for providing teachers with miniature encounters.
Micro-teaching as an essential part of formal educational training for teachers has its objectives which include enabling teacher trainees gain confidence in teaching by mastering a number of skills on a smaller group of students; providing teacher-trainees with an environment for practice-based teaching and through this instill some self-evaluative skills.
The objectives of micro-teaching reveal that it is a field or branch of teacher education essential for teachers in training because through it, they imbibe the qualities of effective teaching avoid mistakes often made by teachers and equip themselves with adequate mastery of skills and techniques of good teaching.
Micro-teaching is an organized practice teaching which is intended to give prospective teachers confidence, support and feedback by creating for them opportunity to demonstrate among their friends and colleagues what they intend to demonstrate among their students in the classroom setting (Goodlad, 2010).
Requirements of microteaching;
o Class for practicing,
o Teacher to demonstrate teaching,
o Prospective teachers, and
Advantages of microteaching;
o It is cheap,
o It enables prospective teacher to handle on how to teach,
o It does not need much preparation.
Task; disadvantage of Microteaching;
SINGLE LESSON TEACHING PRACTICE;
It is the one where by student teacher go by near school exercises teaching (single or double lesson).
Demonstration schools; are the schools which build in teacher in T.C where by teacher trainee go to teach only one lesson during studies and the associated by their tutors and then back to their colleges. It aims at providing students teachers to have real classroom experience and apply.
Requirements of SLTP;
o Demonstration schools,
o Teaching materials.
Advantages of single lesson teaching practice;
o Student teachers are exposed to a real life situation.
o Prospective teachers can easily relate what s/he was learned to the class.
o It is cheap.
Task; disadvantages of SLTP.
BLOCK TEACHING PRACTICE
This is the one whereby teacher trainee made by the process of teaching for one or two months teaching to a particular school. They are assessed by their learners/lecturer/teacher/professors assessing them on how to do.
Requirements of BTP;
o Teaching and learning materials,
Advantages of BTP;
o It enables integration of theory and practice,
o It exposes student-teachers to a real situation of work.
Task; disadvantages of BTP.
This is the period of practical field work after theoretical training. Things undermined are;
o Entry qualification, in Tanzania entry qualification mere remained in paper resulting into low professional teachers and turn-over rate is high.
o Duration of training, other variation ranging from 2 months or one year for crashing programmes, 3 or 4 years for degrees and 2 years for certificate.
For example, in
1977-degree was 3 years.
o Content of teacher education programme e.g. Diploma was only professional course.
o Assessments, absence of teacher professional goals has led to poor assessment.
LESSON LEARNING IN TANZANIA;
There is a need to set acceptable standard for entry qualification. There is a need to link initial teacher training with induction of new teacher with further professional development in experienced and practical teacher.
They need to develop supportive and reflective system. There is the need to assess teacher vertical and horizontal development.
WAYS OF IMPLEMENTING TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME;
o Academic content and professional courses are introduced parallel and similar at the same time,
o Academic content knowledge first and then professional course are introduced gradually later.
Research: systematic procedures of dealing with problems or systematic procedures of investigating of problems or systematic journey reaching to a truth.
A: Action research
Action research is a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own social or educational practices, (b) their undertaking of these practices, and (c) the situations in which the practices are carried out. (Carr and Kemmis 1986).
Action research is a form of research in which practitioners reflect systematically on their practice, implementing informed action to bring about improvement in practice.
Generally, Action research is a research in which participants examine their own educational practice carefully and systematically using technique of research
Action research is a disciplined inquiry done by a teacher with the intent that the research will inform and change his or her practices in school or classroom context in the future time.
Action research is based on the following assumptions:
Teachers and other school members work best on problems they have been identified by themselves
Teachers and other organizational members become more effective when encouraged to examine and assess their own work.
Teacher and other organizational members help each other by working collaboratively and cooperatively
Working with colleagues helps teachers and heads of institutions in their professional development
Characteristics of action research
It is cyclical
It requires separate but mutually dependent steps
It is participative (both the researcher and the subject are active participants in the research process)
It generates data that is generally of a qualitative nature
It is a reflective process
NB: although, there are many types of research that may be undertaken, action research particularly refer to discipline inquiry done by the teacher with an intent that the research will inform and change his/her practice in school or classroom context in the future time
What is Not Action Research?
Action research is not what usually comes to mind when we hear the word ―research‖
Action research is not a library project where we learn a lot of things about the subject of interests but need to go to the fields.
It is not a problem solving in the sense of trying to find out what is wrong, but rather a quest for knowledge about how to improve
It is not about doing research on or about people or finding all available information on a topic looking for the correct answers. It involves people working together to improve their skills, techniques and strategies.
It is not about learning about why we can do certain things rather than how we can do something better. Or, it is about how can improve T/L strategies so that students can improve their learning.
Types of action research
Single or individual teacher action research
Group or collaborative action research
School and district action research
Single or individual teacher action research
Individual teacher action research usually focuses on single issue in the classroom. The teacher may be seeking for solutions to problems of classroom management, instructional strategies, questioning techniques, student motivation, use of materials or student learning.
Teachers may have support of their supervisor or head of school/colleges, an instructor for a course /subject they are taking or parents. The problem is one that the teacher believes is evident in his/her classroom and one that can be addressed on an individual basis. The research may be such that the teacher collects data or may involve looking at student participation
Drawbacks or weaknesses of individual action research
It may not be shared with others unless the teacher chooses to present findings at a department or school meeting, make a formal presentation at a conference, or submit written material to lists of journal or news letter
It is possible for several teachers to be working concurrently on the same problem with no knowledge of the work of others
Group or collaborative action research
Collaborative research action may include as few as two teachers or group of several teachers and others interested in addressing a classroom or department issue. This issue may involve one classroom or a common problem shared by many classrooms. These teachers may be supported by individuals outside of school, such as a university or community partner.
School and district action research
School-wide research focuses on issues common to all. For example, a school may have a concern about the lack of parental involvement in activities, and is looking for a way to reach more parents to involve them in meaningful ways. Or, the school may be looking to address its organizational and decision-making structures. Teams of staff from the school work together to narrow the question, gather and analyze the data, and decide on a plan of action.
An example of action research for a school could be to examine their state test scores to identify areas that need improvement, and then determine a plan of action to improve student performance. Team work and individual contributions to the whole are very
important, and it may be that problem points arise as the team strives to develop a process and make commitments to each other.
When these obstacles are overcome, there will be a sense of ownership and accomplishment in the results that come from this school-wide effort.
District-wide research is far more complex and utilizes more resources, but the rewards can be great. Issues can be organizational, community-based, performance-based, or processes for decision-making at district level. A district may choose to address a problem common to several schools or one of organizational management. Downsides are the documentation requirements (communication) to keep everyone in the loop, and the ability to keep the process in motion. Collecting data from all participants needs a commitment from staff to do their fair share and to meet agreed-upon deadlines for assignments. On the positive side, real school reform and change can take hold based on a common understanding through inquiry. The involvement of multiple constituent groups can lend energy to the process and create an environment of genuine stakeholders.
Figure: Types of action research
Benefits of Action Research
Action research can be a worthwhile pursuit for educators for a number of reasons. Foremost among these is simply the desire to know more. Good teachers are, after all, themselves students, and often look for ways to expand upon their existing knowledge.
Focus on school issue, problem, or area of collective interest: Research done with the teacher‘s students, in a setting with which the teacher is familiar helps to confer relevance and validity to a disciplined study. Often, academic research is seen as disconnected from the daily lives of educators. While this might not always be true, it can be very helpful for teachers to pick up threads suggested in academic circles, and weave them in to their own classroom. It is also comforting for parents, or education administrators outside of the school, to know that a teacher is not just blindly following what the latest study seems to suggest, but is transforming the knowledge into something meaningful.
Form a teacher professional development: Research and reflection allow teachers to grow and gain confidence in their work. Action research projects influence thinking skills, sense of efficacy, willingness to share and communicate, and attitudes toward the process of change. Through action research, teachers learn about themselves, their students, their colleagues, and can determine ways to continually improve.
Collegial interactions: Isolation is one of the downsides of teaching. Teachers are often the sole adult in a room of children, and have little or no time scheduled for professional conversations with others. Action research in pairs or by teams of teachers allows time to talk with others about teaching and teaching strategies. By working on these teams, teachers must describe their own teaching styles and strategies and share their thoughts with others. As a team they examine various instructional strategies, learning activities, and curricular materials used in the classroom. Through these discussions with colleagues they develop stronger relationships. As the practice of action research becomes part of the school culture, we see increased sharing and collaboration across departments, disciplines, grade levels, and schools.
Potential to impact school change: As teachers get into action research, they are more apt to look at questions that address school and district concerns rather than questions that affect the individual teacher. This process creates new patterns of collegiality, communication, and sharing. Contributions to the body of knowledge about teaching and learning may also result. Development of priorities for school-wide planning and assessment efforts arise from inquiry with potential to motivate change for improvement‘s sake.
Reflect on own practice: Opportunities for teachers to evaluate themselves in schools are often few, and usually happen only in an informal manner. Action research can serve as a chance to really take a look at one‘s own teaching in a structured manner. While the focus of action research is usually the students, educators can also investigate what effect their teaching is having on their students, how they could work better with other teachers, or ways of changing the whole school for the better. Conversations can take on a different focus from attempting to ―fix‖ to arriving at understanding.
Improved communications: Team work within the school or district brings individuals together for a shared purpose. Educators involved in action research become more flexible in their thinking and more open to new ideas (Pine, 1981). Studies by Little (1981) suggest positive changes in patterns of collegiality, communication, and networking.
B: INQUIRY APPROACH (PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH)
In this approach to teaching, the students‘ inquire into the problems with the view of finding answers or reasons why the problem exists. Enquiry goes further than discovery although a student must use all of his/her discovery capabilities and many more of this approach. Inquiry teaching can be traced back to the work of John Dewey. He maintained that, the learner should develop the intellectual tact and sensitivity to solve problems by inquiring constantly in the classroom (Dewey, 1993). Answers should be scientific. Students must use all discovery capabilities
Any inquiry oriented teaching strategies must provide an opportunity to learners to identify and clarify a purpose for inquiry, formulate hypothesis by collecting data, draw conclusions, apply the conclusion in a new situation to new data, and develop meaningful generalizations or principle. Purpose of inquiry to formulate hypothesis by collecting data, draw conclusion and apply conclusion to a new situation to new data. Finally develop meaningful generalizations or principle.
Note: Using inquiry in classroom does not mean leading learners towards conclusions already clear to both teachers and students. What is important even central, to inquiry is that students use accepted methods in collecting data so that they gain some insight into the situation or problem actually exists in their own classroom, laboratory or environment.
Students use accepted methods in collecting data so that they gain insight into situation or problem that actually exists in classroom, laboratory and any other situation
Three main types of inquiry
Modified free inquiry
Occurs when a problem is posed by a teacher and student tasks are well structured. Then, in order to assist the students, the teacher might break down the problem into simpler questions to be answered and may even give advice about steps which the students take to answer these questions. In any event, the students must come to an understanding of and a solution to the problem at the end of the time allowed for inquiry
Task/lesson should be well structured by the teacher, a problem is proposed by the teacher.
The amount of guidance will depend on level of students, problem and teacher
Teacher should advice students/learners to follow scientific procedures on talking certain problems
This occurs when students themselves formulate problems to be solved, diverse or design methods and techniques to solve the problems, carry out investigations and come to conclusion.
Free inquiry is suited more intellectually and gifted students with minimum amount of guidance from the teacher. Have a very little teacher guide. It suits gifted and talented students.
A class of large number of students is difficult to be implemented. The amount of guidance given in any situation will depend on the grade level of the students, the problem and the teacher. It is doubtful to a large class.
Modified free inquiry
This falls between guide inquiry and free inquiry. A teacher provides a problem and a student encouraged to solve those problems on their own or in their groups.
A teacher acts as a resource person giving only enough assistance so that they do not become frustrated with what appears to be a lack of progress.
Note; without telling the students what steps to take, the teacher rather asks appropriate questions, which are more hints than directions, to help the students move forward in the investigation.
Advantages of inquiry
It tends to generate enthusiasm and interests in the students
Improves remembering to students because students do things in their own way
Some researchers maintain that, it enhances critical thinking and skills of scientific investigation
Disadvantages of inquiry
It may be not possible to use in all situations in monitoring problems
It is more suitable for intuitive and creative learners
Is intensively and carefully using scientific procedures in solving particular problems.
It is important to acknowledge that the term ―mentor‖ is borrowed from the male guide, Mentor, in Greek mythology, and this historical context has informed traditional manifestations of mentoring.
Traditionally, mentoring is viewed as a dyadic, face-to-face, long-term relationship between a supervisory adult and a novice student that fosters the mentee‘s professional, academic, or personal development (Donaldson, Ensher, & Grant-Vallone, 2000).
Mentoring is a term generally used to describe a relationship between a less experienced individual, called a mentee or protégé, and a more experienced individual known as a mentor. Mentoring is a common phenomenon which can be seen in several disciplines. Eg.
Doctors, lawyers, engineers, etc. Mentoring process is required in any profession. A mentor is the experienced individual who assists mentee or others to develop professionally. Mentoring is a continuous process.
This is any individual who provide a less experienced person with support, reinforcement.
Qualities of a good mentor
A friend not a social work (good relationship between a mentor and a mentee)
Should coach, not act as parents. i.e. suppose to coach
A motivator (person who give encouragement, wherever there are changes
A companion and a bagging machine .i.e. knowledge should be shared between a mentor and mentee
Role model in number of actions you are doing
Listen carefully, what the mentees say and not jump to a conclusion
Strive for mutual respect
Attributes to consider when choosing a mentor
How interested is your potential mentor in developing his/her mentoring skills?
How much time does your potential mentor have available? Is the person already involved in other mentoring relationships?
How similar is the potential mentor‘s personal style to your own?
Does the potential mentor have similar professional or academic background to yours
Has your potential mentor had a career path (or even life path) from which you would like to learn?
How well does he/she know you, your goals, and aspirations?
What has his/her path to career growth and success been?
Is he/she in the right career field to help you?
How open can you truly be with him/her?
Will he/she be open to your ideas and action plan?
Will he/she try to mold you in his/her image?
Characteristics of mentee:
Willingness to learn
Willingness and ability to self evaluate
Commitment and building trust
Asking constructive questions
Should have respect
Many styles of mentoring depend on the type of organization and individuals involved:
Casual mentoring is what some individuals are referring to when they give public recognition to a mentor who has served as a role model or example. The mentor may not be aware that the protégé is using their behaviours as an example to follow. Everyone engages in this type of mentoring, but it has no formal structure or defined objectives – it involves simply learning from the good habits and behaviours demonstrated by others. This is not to suggest that casual mentoring is without value since much can be learned from others even in passing interactions.
This occurs when you give a public recognition to mentor who save as a role model or examples.
The mentor may not be aware that the mentee using his/her behaviors. Every one engage in this mentoring everyday but there is no formal structure or defined objectives. Simply learning good behaviors as demonstrated by others.
Informal mentoring relationships are unplanned relationships. These mentoring relationships grow out of a chance connection between two people and are further built into a relationship in which there is transference of skills and knowledge. There is no contract or list of goals. The relationship may move from professional to personal and may last a lifetime. These mentoring relationships are unquestionably valuable, but ‗just happen‘ as opposed to being actively developed.
Informal mentoring can be enhanced if the participants in the relationship take the time to have ―formal‖ discussions and establish specific goals for the transference of certain skills and knowledge within set time periods.
Are unplanned relationship, these relationship grow out of chance connection of two people and further build into relationship in which there is transfer of knowledge and skills
Two people 1. More experienced 2. Less experienced
Two people meet and build the mentoring process and everyone learning from one another
This type of mentoring has no structure
Non-facilitated mentoring relationships are those with structure, such as a mentoring contract, but they have no coordinated assignment of mentor-protégé pairs. The individuals make a mentoring connection without external help or direction. The individuals will have supporting material such as written guidelines or seminars and will be cognizant of their individual and paired expectations. They will undertake a mentoring contract and will consult their respective employers if necessary. They may have access to resource persons for help. Non-facilitated mentoring may include multiple or group mentoring and e-mentoring as described below.
This is relatively new idea, or renewed idea, as it was a practice hundreds of years ago under various names. Group mentoring occurs when a number of mentors serve together
as a resource for a defined group of protégés with similar expectations. The mentors bring a variety of skills to protégés and share responsibility for each protégé‘s growth. The group may meet at regular intervals and unlike a one-on-one pairing, if one or two mentors are unavailable, the protégés will still have a contact person. The protégé group also benefits from the varying backgrounds and skill sets of their peers and may not need the mentors‘ presence at each meeting. All involved benefit from the network of colleagues.
Occur when number of mentors serves together as a source of knowledge and skills for defined group of mentee. Mentees have similar goals and objectives (expectations)
A protégé may wish to consider having a number of mentors, each of whom offers different skills and experiences. Because the relationship must benefit both parties, the protégé should not use the mentors only as skill improvement stations, but the protégé should also try to offer in return some elements of their knowledge or experience that might be of benefit to the mentor. It is up to the protégé to decide who will make a good mentor and approach that individual with a plan.
This occurs when there is group of mentors each of them offers different skills and experiences to a mentee
This relationship benefits both parts mentee and mentor, such mentees should try to offer and return some of the skills and experiences to the mentor
Facilitated mentoring is a structured program that involves a coordinator who assigns mentoring pairs based on character, skills, need and other criteria. The APEGA Mentoring Pilot Project falls in this category. Some other large corporations have facilitated mentoring programs as part of their company orientation practices, or as succession management strategies. The matching process is time-consuming and requires considerable human and capital resources. Facilitated mentoring also helps design contracts, creates reasonable lists of goals and tracks the mentoring pairs to see if the relationship is working and if not, steps in to help facilitate the relationship. Although this may be the best kind of mentoring program, the cost is often prohibitive.
It is the structured programme that involves a coordinator who acts mentoring pairs based on character, skills, relationships and needs.
E-Mentoring can be successful if those matched in the relationship are equally adept at using computers. A good deal of trust is required because comments made in writing can be much more career limiting than a comment made in casual conversation. Because of this fact, mentors and protégés must give serious consideration to limiting topics. Written comments about difficulties experienced with one‘s boss or someone else in the organization would have to be avoided on-line, thus limiting the value of the relationship. Those using e-mail for personal correspondence should seriously consider using passwords on confidential documents. Using e-mail for the everyday organization such as setting up a private meeting for discussions of sensitive subjects can overcome the problem. E-mentoring is becoming more and more popular because it helps to overcome some of the problems caused by full schedules and jobs that require travel.
Benefits/Importance of mentoring
Helps transfer and sharing of skills and knowledge from the mentor to mentee in an organization or institution
Helps to empowering young professionals with skills which traditionally obtained through trial and error
CASCADE MODEL (one to one model)
Group model mentoring
Read different types of mentoring models such as cascade model, etc
Explain the meaning of :
TEACHER EDUCATION/ TRAINING
Note: in Tanzania, teacher education curriculum is viewed as having two components namely;
Academic component/subject specialization
The focus is on providing the teacher with sufficient academic/subject knowledge in order to teach the learners/student-teacher in his or her subject of specialization. E.g. in diploma, a teacher may take chemistry & biology, History & Kiswahili, Geography and mathematics
Degree (either focus on one subject or two teaching subjects)
Methodology/ professional component
The focus is on developing to student-teacher knowledge and skills of teaching and learning. The emphasis is on teaching methods, techniques, strategies and classroom management and interaction.