Top 200 Universities in Africa 2020 | Best Universities in Africa 2020 | Check Full List Here


Top 200 BEST Universities in Africa 2020

African University Ranking 2020 | ORODHA YA VYUO BORA AFRICA 2020

This uniRank page features the 2020 African University Ranking of the top 200 officially recognized higher-education institutions in Africa meeting the following uniRank selection criteria:

Tanzanian Best Universities Ranking 2020 | VYUO BORA TANZANIA 2020


Best Universities in Tanzania 2020

Tanzanian Universities Ranking | VYUO BORA TANZANIA 2020 | CHECK NOW

This uniRank page features the 2020 Tanzanian Universities Ranking of all officially recognized Tanzanian higher-education institutions meeting the following uniRank selection criteria:


A terminal examination is a means of carrying out a summative assessment, rather than an ongoing formative evaluation of the candidate's performance. From: terminal examination in A Dictionary of Education » Subjects: Social sciences — Education.


A terminal examination is a means of carrying out a summative assessment, rather than an ongoing formative evaluation of the candidate's performance. From: terminal examination in A Dictionary of Education » Subjects: Social sciences — Education.

Form Six (ACSEE), Diploma in Secondary Education (DSEE) and Grade A Teacher Certificate (GATCE) NECTA Exams Timetable 2020 | RATIBA YA MTIHANI KIDATO CHA SITA, DIPLOMA NA GRADE A 2020

1. Attention is called to ‘Notice to Candidates’ overleaf.
2. Where contradictions arise; the day, time and duration shown on the question paper should be adhered to.
3. Examination will continue as scheduled even if it falls on a Public Holiday
1. You are required to appear for the examination(s) at the centre(s) under which you are registered unless otherwise advised by the Council in writing.
2. You are required to observe all instructions given to you by the Supervisor, Invigilators or Officers of the Council responsible for the conduct of the examinations.
3. If you arrive more than half an hour late for an examination, you will not be admitted.
4. After the first half-hour, you may leave as soon as you have finished your paper and handed in the script to the Supervisor/Invigilator. You may leave the room temporarily at any time after the first half-hour but only with the permission of the invigilator.
5. You may bring into the examination room only books, papers or instruments which are specifically permitted. If you are suspected of cheating or attempting to cheat, or assisting someone else to cheat, the facts will be reported to the Council. You may in consequence be disqualified from the examination and excluded from all future examinations of the Council. Any notes or other unauthorised material may be retained by the Council at its discretion.
6. Communication, verbal or otherwise, between candidates is not allowed during the examination. If any candidate wishes to communicate with the invigilator he should raise his hand to attract attention.
7. Write your examination number correctly on every answer sheet of the answer booklet/answer sheet used. Using anybody else’s examination number is considered a case of dishonesty that may lead to cancellation of examination results. Names, initials or any other mark that would identify a candidate should not be written on answer books or sheets of paper.
8. If you are found guilty of dishonesty in connection with the examination you may be disqualified in the entire examination.
9. Take nothing other than the question paper, unless instructed otherwise, from the examination room. Do not damage any paper or material supplied.
10. Write all answers in the language required unless you are instructed otherwise.
11. Write in blue or black ink or ball pen. Draw in pencil.
12. You are required to attend punctually at the time shown on your timetable.
13. Smoking is not permitted in the examination room.

14. Private candidates should produce a letter of authority from the Council allowing them to sit for the particular examination at the prescribed centre, failure to that no permission will be given to enter the examination room.
15. The examination will continue as scheduled even if it falls on a public holiday. 


YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa Fully Funded 2020


YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa Fully Funded 2020 YALI (The Young African Leaders Initiative)  was launched by former President of the United States Barack Obama as a signature effort to invest in the next generation of African leaders. The need to invest in grooming strong, results-oriented leaders comes out of the statistics: nearly 1 in 3 Africans are between the ages of 10 and 24, and approximately 60% of Africa’s total population is below the age of 35.


Who will empower and lead these young Africans? Who will shape the future of business and entrepreneurship, civic leadership, and public management?
In order to answer these questions, YALI promotes three models designed to identify and empower young leaders: the YALI Mandela Washington Fellowship, YALI Network, and the Regional Leadership Centers across Africa


The YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa, located at Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya serves 14 countries in East and Central Africa: Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. The Center is overseen by Deloitte East Africa and is supported by a growing number of African and international partners.
Selected participants will engage in leadership training across three tracks of study: (1) Business and Entrepreneurship, (2) Civic Leadership, and (3) Public Management in a 4-week residential format with a focus on individual and team leadership skills, innovation, creative learning, and communication. The program’s emphasis is on interactive and experiential learning which fosters each participant’s ability to contribute both individually and in teams.

Reasons to Apply to the YALI

At the end of the programs participants will be awarded with certificate and become a member of the Yali Alumni
Participants will be taking through various forms of leadership training to prepare them for leadership role in their various endeavors.
Applicants will not be discriminated against on the basis of race, ethnicity, color, gender, religion, socio-economic status, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity. The management of the YALI Regional Leadership Center, West Africa – Accra reserves the right to verify all of the information included in the application.

What We Offer

Business and Entrepreneurship: This track caters to the range of emerging or aspiring entrepreneurs who expect to take on leadership roles within the private sector or build their own business ventures on the continent.
NCivil Society Management: This track is oriented to those who are or aspire to be civically engaged and serve the public through non-governmental organizations, community based organizations, or volunteerism.
NPublic Policy and Management: This track is tailored to those who work or aspire to work in any level of government (including elected positions), regional organizations such as the African Union or the West Africa Community, international organizations such as the United Nations, or other publicly minded organizations or think tanks.

Opportunity is About:

Administration & GovernmentEconomics, Business, Management & FinanceInternational AffairsMedia, Marketing & PRPoliticsSociety


Candidates should be from:

Burundi Central African Republic Congo: Democratic Republic Congo: Republic Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia South Sudan Sudan Tanzania Uganda

Description of Ideal Candidate:


Competition for the YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa is merit-based and open to young East African leaders who meet the following criteria:
  • Are 18 to 35 years of age at the time of application submission,
  • Are citizens and residents of one of the following countries: Burundi, Central African Republic. Republic of the
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda
  • Are not U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the U.S.
  • Are eligible to receive any necessary visa to Kenya, and
  • Are proficient in reading, writing, listening and speaking English.


Selection for participation in the YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa will be conducted as a merit-based, open competition. All eligible applications will be reviewed by a selection panel. Chosen semi-finalists will then be interviewed before a final selection is made and an invitation to join the program is issued.

Selection panels will use the following criteria to evaluate applications:

  • A demonstrated leadership in public service, business and entrepreneurship, or civic engagement.
  • Active engagement in public or community service, volunteerism, or mentorship.
  • The ability to work cooperatively in diverse groups and respect the opinions of others.
  • Strong social and communication skills.
  • An energetic, positive attitude.
  • A demonstrated knowledge, interest, and professional experience in the sector/track selected, and
  • A commitment to apply leadership skills and training to benefit your country and/or community after the program.
  • Applicants will not be discriminated against on the basis of race, ethnicity, color, gender, religion, socio-economic status, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.


Deadline: June 01, 2020

Cost/funding for participants:

Fully Funded


If you are selected to participate in the YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa program, all of the following expenses will be covered by the program:
  • Visa to Kenya (if required);
  • Round-trip travel from your country of citizenship to Nairobi, Kenya;
  • Transportation to/from Jomo Kenyatta International Airport to/from the YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa for all non-Kenyan participants;
  • For Kenyans, transportation to/from the YALI Regional Leadership Center East Africa will be provided for from your location of residence;
  • Customized academic and leadership course;
  • Accident and sickness benefit plan;
  • Housing and meals; and
  • Stipend to cover miscellaneous costs when in Nairobi.


WIZARA YA ELIMU: New SCHOLARSHIPS Opportunities at The Helwan University - Egypt for 2020/21 Academic Year

1.0 Call for Application
The general public is hereby informed that, Helwan University has granted scholarship opportunities to eligible Tanzanian nationals to pursue Undergraduate and Postgraduate studies for the academic year 2020/2021
2.0 Application Requirements
Applicants should submit the following documents in PDF form;
  • A recommendation letter;
  • A statement of purpose describing reasons for selecting the relevant program;
  • Certified photocopies of academic certificates, transcripts and birth certificate;
  • A certificate of English Language Proficiency;
  • A detailed Curriculum Vitae;
  • A copy of the information page of the passport; and
  • Applicants for Masters and Doctorate degrees should include their research proposal.
NB: Incomplete application forms and application documents will not be considered.

 For details on application procedures, an application form and required application documents visit:

3.0 Scholarship Coverage
This is a partial scholarship which covers only tuition fee. It does NOT cover accommodation expenses, monthly stipend, travel expenses, healthcare or any category of insurance, stationery or visa costs.

4.0 Submission
A filled application form and the corresponding application documents should be submitted to the following email: not later than 31th May, 2020.
Issued by
Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology,
Government City,
Mtumba Area,
Afya Street,
P. O. Box 10,
40479 DODOMA.


O-Level is the abbreviation of Ordinary Level. It is one of the two-part CSE (Certificate For Secondary Education). The other part of CSE is Advanced Level (A-Level), which students enter after completing O-Level. 

United Nations University scholarships for international students, 2020-21

International scholarships, fellowships or grants are offered to students outside the country where the university is located. These are also called as financial aid and many times the financial aid office of the United Nations University deals with it. United Nations University scholarships are offered by United Nations University to study or research there.

There are various United Nations University scholarships, internships for international students. Apart from the university-based scholarships, there are many other organizations including foundations, trusts, corporates etc. Who offer scholarships for international students. To help, we list out the latest international scholarships, fellowships and grants information. The United Nations University scholarships application form is also available to apply online for the scholarships.
Quick links for United Nations University scholarships:
  • United Nations University Bachelors scholarships (also known as United Nations University undergraduate scholarships)
  • United Nations University Masters scholarships
  • United Nations University PhD scholarships
As you see, these United Nations University scholarships can be taken for various degree levels. Explore United Nations University courses/ degree programs offered for United Nations University bachelors courses (also known as United Nations University undergraduate courses), United Nations University Masters courses and even for United Nations University PhD courses or research programs.

Below is the list of top 10 United Nations University scholarships for International students:

  1. IAL Research Grants For Doctoral Studies
    IAL Research Grants For Doctoral Studies is a Full Funding international scholarship offered by the Institute for Adult Learning (IAL) for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to citizens of Singapore
    This PhD scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Research related to SingaporeĆ¢€™s Continuing Education and Training (CET) sector. 31 May is the deadline to send applications for IAL Research Grants For Doctoral Studies. The value of the scholarship is $100,000 including tuition + monthly stipend. This scholarship can be taken at Singapore or Overseas . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  2. HKADC Overseas Arts Administration Scholarships
    HKADC Overseas Arts Administration Scholarships is a Full Funding international scholarship offered by the The Hong Kong Arts Development Council (ADC) for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to international applicants
    This Masters scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Art project management, arts policy & administration, curating, marketing & communication, research & analysis, development & entrepreneurship . Deadline varies is the deadline to send applications for HKADC Overseas Arts Administration Scholarships. The value of the scholarship is Each scholarship value is up to HK$450,000. This scholarship can be taken at Overseas (Anywhere except Hong Kong) . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  3. National Arts Council Arts Scholarships in Singapore, 2020
    National Arts Council Arts Scholarships in Singapore, 2020 is a Partial Funding international scholarship offered by the National Art Council (NAC) for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to Singapore citizens and permanent Residents
    This Bachelors/Undergraduate, Other scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Arts. 03 Apr is the deadline to send applications for National Arts Council Arts Scholarships in Singapore, 2020. The value of the scholarship is 90% of tuition fees + Allowance + Airfare. This scholarship can be taken at Recognized Universities or Arts Institutions in Singapore or overseas . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  4. Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada - Media Fellowships 2019
    Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada - Media Fellowships 2019 is a Partial Funding international scholarship offered by the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to applicants from Canada
    This Conferences & Travel Grants scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Journalists working on themes related to Canada-Asia relationship . 26 Apr is the deadline to send applications for Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada - Media Fellowships 2019. The value of the scholarship is up to C$10,000. This scholarship can be taken at Universities and research institutes in Asia . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  5. Kyoto University - CSEAS Fellowship for Visiting Research Scholars in Japan, 2019
    Kyoto University - CSEAS Fellowship for Visiting Research Scholars in Japan, 2019 is a Full Funding international scholarship offered by the Kyoto University for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to Southeast Asian countries
    This Post Doc scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Research work in any field. 08 Apr is the deadline to send applications for Kyoto University - CSEAS Fellowship for Visiting Research Scholars in Japan, 2019. The value of the scholarship is Stipend + Domestic travel expenses + Research grant. This scholarship can be taken at Kyoto University, . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  6. World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program For Developing Countries
    World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program For Developing Countries international scholarship offered by the World Bank for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are:
    This Masters scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Economic policy management, Tax policy, Infrastructure management. 19 Mar is the deadline to send applications for World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program For Developing Countries. This scholarship can be taken at Japan, USA and selected African nations . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  7. Research Scholarships By Japanese Government
    Research Scholarships By Japanese Government is a Full Funding international scholarship offered by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to all natonials
    This Masters, PhD scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Courses offered by Japanese Universities . Deadline varies is the deadline to send applications for Research Scholarships By Japanese Government. The value of the scholarship is Each Student gets up to 145,000 yens per annum. This scholarship can be taken at Universities in Japan . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  8. Ritchie-Jennings Memorial Scholarship Program, 2020
    Ritchie-Jennings Memorial Scholarship Program, 2020 is a Partial Funding international scholarship offered by the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to all nationals
    This Bachelors/Undergraduate, Masters scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Accounting, Business administration, Finance, Criminal justice. 30 Jan is the deadline to send applications for Ritchie-Jennings Memorial Scholarship Program, 2020. The value of the scholarship is USD 1,000 to USD 10,000. This scholarship can be taken at Any institution . The scholarship application form can be seen here

  9. Rotary Peace Fellowships, 2021-22
    Rotary Peace Fellowships, 2021-22 is a Full Funding international scholarship offered by the Rotary International for international students. Students eligible for this scholarship are: Open to all nationals
    This Masters scholarship can be taken for pursuing in Peace and conflict prevention and resolution. 31 May is the deadline to send applications for Rotary Peace Fellowships, 2021-22. The value of the scholarship is Tuition fee + living expenses + benefits. This scholarship can be taken at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Uppsala University (Uppsala Universitet), Duke University, University of Bradford, University of Queensland (UQ), . The scholarship application form can be seen here

Apply Top 20 Fully Funded USA Scholarships for 2020 ( Undergraduate and Postgraduate)

USA has the world’s largest international student population, with more than 1,000,000 students choosing to broaden their education and life experience in the United States. Nearly 5% of all students enrolled in higher-level education in the USA are international students, and the numbers are growing. Being the hub of education in the world, we deiced to
prepare this article on Top 30+ fully funded scholarships to Study In USA, 2020.
From the mid-1950s, when international student enrollment was only just reaching 35,000, international education in the USA has come a long way.
We look forward to helping students like you who are considering to pursue undergraduatemastersPh.D. education in the United States with scholarships for undergraduates students in US, scholarships for masters students, etc at your fingertips.
This article list  Top 30+ Scholarships for international students planning to Study in the USA in 2020. The USA is a Dreamland for Many international Students wishing to achieve their Life’s Goals and Vision, therefore, don’t let finance deprive you of those dreams.

1.Fullbright International Scholarship For International Students-USA

The Fulbright Scholarship is open to foreign students to enable them to further their education in the US. Thus, over 4000 international students are awarded the Fulbright scholarship every year. The Fulbright scholarship is available for young professionals, graduate students and artists from abroad.
The benefits of scholars for the Fulbright Program also vary with the country of the applicants. One will get to see the benefits when they check their countries eligibility. But in general terms, The Fulbright scholarship program covers the following costs for the winners during their scholarship program:
  • The grant funds tuition fee of scholars.
  • Single go and return airfare at the beginning and end of the program on an economy class.
  • A stipend to cover the cost of living.
  • Health insurance and many other benefits.
The Fulbright program offers over 4000 scholarships awards to students across the globe every year.
Approximately 160 international countries are eligible for this scholarship program.
Winners can study any graduate course of their choice that falls in the following category;
  • English Teaching Assistant Programs
  • Study or Research Programs
  • Special Programs
All Foreign Student Program applications of Fulbright scholarship are processed and accessed by the bi-national Fulbright U.S Embassies Foundations/Commissions. It means that all international students must apply for the program through the Fulbright U.S Embassy Foundation/Commission in their home countries.
These are the necessary documents that will be required for the Fulbright scholarship program irrespective of nationality. Other documents might as well be requested in consideration of the country of citizenship.
  • Personal Statement
  • Biographical Data
  • Program Information
  • Transcripts
  • Statement of Grant Purpose
  • Affiliation Letter
  • Foreign Language Forms
  • Supplementary Materials
  • Recommendations
  • Ethical Requirements
The deadline and start date of Fulbright Foreign Program application vary with respect to the country of application. Though, the scholarship application is usually run from February through November,
For more details on Fulbright scholarship application, kindly visit their official webpage

2.Apply for National Founder’s Graduate Business Student Scholarship-USA 

Would you like to get a Scholarship that can help in further education? Brown, PC is offering National Founder’s Graduate Business Student Scholarship to a current U.S. graduate business student who demonstrates an interest in entrepreneurship. Award money $500 is given by National Founders to the winning candidates that can be used for any expenses related to education, including but not limited to tuition, room, board, books, or commuting expenses.
Candidates should submit a cover letter summarizing their interest and experience in entrepreneurship to Cover letters should also include the following information:
  • Name
  • Email Address
  • Street, City, State & Zip Code
  • Phone Number
  • University Name & City, State
  • Student ID Number
  • GPA (minimum of 3.0 in graduate studies)
  • Expected Graduation Date
Candidates are encouraged to submit, along with their letter, any documents demonstrating their interest in entrepreneurship.
The deadline for submissions is Monday, August 10, 2020 and the award will be announced on Monday, August 17, 2020.
Please feel free to direct questions to

3.Niagara Foundation Internship for International Students in USA

Niagara Foundation offers an internship program to undergraduate/graduate students and recent graduates from an accredited college or university. Niagara Foundation internships are unpaid.
Interns are assigned a long-term project that they work on during their 12-week internship in addition to daily responsibilities.

About Our Internship Program

Niagara Foundation offers a highly competitive internship program that gives students and recent graduates the unique opportunity to make important professional contributions to our success. Interns are assigned a long-term project that they work on during their 12-week internship in addition to daily responsibilities. Long-term project assignments range from new program development, creating strategic plans, research, and analysis, as well as contributing to the organization of department-specific programs. Niagara Foundation internships are unpaid.

General Requirements

Internships are available to undergraduate/graduate students and recent graduates from an accredited college or university. Individual internship postings have specific requirements so be sure to read each description before submitting an application.

Internship Dates:

Fall Term: September 8 ll Application Deadline: August 1st
Spring Term: January 11 ll Application Deadline: December 15th
Summer Term: June 6 ll Application Deadline: March 15th
**If the accepted applicants are not able to start their internships on time, they are required by Niagara Foundation’s rules and regulations to notify the Intern Supervisor with a valid reason 1 month in advance for additional arrangements.**

How to Apply

Please send your resume, writing sample and two recommendation letters to

4.Allen Lee Hughes Fellowship & Internship by Arena Stage in the USA 

The goal of Arena Stage’s fellowship and internship program is to cultivate the next generation of theater professionals by providing the highest standard of training through immersion in the art and business of producing theater.
Successful candidates for both programs are highly motivated individuals who have arts-related experience and training, as well as a passion for the exploration of the human condition through dramatic forms.
Application Link

5.Consuelo W. Gosnell Memorial Scholarship | NASW Foundation Scholarship-USA

Each year, applications for the Consuelo W. Gosnell Memorial Scholarship are invited. This scholarship is fully supported by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) Foundation.
Only NASW member students are invited to apply. He or she must be planning to enroll in an accredited MSW program. A maximum of 10 awards will be given. Each of those amounting $4,000.
Application Link

6.James Madison Fellowship Program-USA

The fellowship award is fully sponsored by the James Madison Memorial Fellowship Foundation. It will be targeted for any potential person who wants to become a professional teacher American Constitution at the secondary school level. Up to $24,000 will be awarded the fellowship winners.
Application Link

7.Washington CPA Foundation Scholarship-USA

The Washington of Certified Public Accountants Foundation is pleased to offer scholarships to accounting students, who are currently attending an accredited college or university in the State of Washington and have a minimum 3.0 GPA.
The Washington CPA Foundation provides an opportunity to help even more students on the path to pursue their dream of being a CPA. Fifty (50) winners will get up to more than $5,000 scholarship for tuition only.
Application Link

8.AlgaeCal Health Scholarships-USA

AlgaeCal is proud to announce its first-ever Scholarship Program to interested applicants, who are enrolled at a college/university in the 2016-2017 school year, or who are enrolling in the upcoming semester.
The AlgaeCal Scholarship originated from the desire to financially assist students in pursuit of higher education as they face the challenge of significantly rising costs of obtaining a college degree. The Winner of the AlgaeCal scholarship program will receive a $1,000 scholarship.
Application Link

9.Google Lime Scholarship Program-USA

The application for the Google Lime Scholarship Program is now open! The highly selective program is open to accomplished undergraduate, graduate or Ph.D. students, who are pursuing a computer science or computer engineering degree, or a degree in a closely related technical field in college or university.
Google is committed to helping the innovators of the future make the most of their talents by providing scholarships and networking retreats for computer science students with disabilities.
Application Link

10.AES Engineering Scholarship-USA 

Would you like to get a Scholarship that can further help in education? AES Engineering Solutions is offering the scholarship for those students who want to be a future leader across a wide spectrum of fields of study.
AES Engineering believes that a high-grade point average should not be the only criterion for determining who is able for getting the scholarship.
Application Link

11.University of Washington-TRACE Scholar Program, USA

This LLM scholarship is aimed at developing exceptional young leaders in the field of anti-corruption who are committed to advancing commercial transparency. The University of Washington School of Law aspires to be the best public law school in the nation and one of the world’s most respected centers for interdisciplinary legal studies.
Application Link

12.Leon N. Weiner Education Foundation High School Scholarship-USA

Education is the key to success”. At the Leon N. Weiner Education Foundation, they know that it’s true!
Hence The Leon N. Weiner Education Foundation (LNWEF) is providing financial support to bright, high-achieving students striving to take advantage of those opportunities and reach the next level in their education through the new High School Tuition Scholarship Program.
LNWEF will award scholarships of up to $5,000.00 per year and funds are to be used for tuition only.
Application Link

13.World of 7 Billion Student Video Contest-USA

The World of 7Billion is pleased to announce the Student Video Contest for all middle and high school students from anywhere in the world. The student can win cash prizes by creating a short video on a global challenge impacted by population growth.
The program has developed age-appropriate curricula to complement students’ science and social science instruction about human population trends and their impacts on natural resources, environmental quality and human well-being. The winners of the video contest will receive a different – different cash prizes among their eligibility of applicants.
Application Link

14.CIF Scholar-Athlete of the Year Scholarship-USA

The California Interscholastic Federation is now offering its “CIF Scholar-Athlete of the Year Scholarship” Program. The prestigious program recognizes two (2) student-athletes based on excellence in athletics, academics, and character.
The purpose of the CIF is to provide the opportunity to dramatically influence the actions of the athletic community. The two State winners (1 boy and 1 girl) will each receive a $5,000 scholarship.
Application Link

15 The USDA/1890 National Scholars Program US

The USDA/1890 National Scholars Program is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and 1890 Historically Black Land-Grant Universities. The program is available to high school seniors entering their freshman year of college and rising college sophomores and juniors.
The goal of the scholarship is to increase the number of minorities studying agriculture, food, natural resource sciences, and related disciplines. The winning candidates will get full tuition, employment, employee benefits, fees, books, and room and board each year for up to 4 years.
Application Link

Good luck with your pursuit for quality education.

UDSM Scholarships Opportunities 2020 | Full Funded by Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)

The University of Dar es Salaam is the oldest and biggest public university in Tanzania. It is situated on the western side of the city of Dar es Salaam, occupying 1,625 acres on the observation hill, 13 kilometers from the city centre. It was established on 1st July 1970, through parliament act no. 12 of 1970 and all the enabling legal instruments of the constituent colleges.
It was established with three main objectives, namely:
  • To transmit knowledge as a basis of action, from one generation to another;
  • To act as a centre for advancing frontiers of knowledge through scientific research; and
  • To meet the high level human resource needs of the Tanzanian society.
In 1961, the University started with the Faculty of Law. It expanded over the years with the establishment of the numerous Faculties and Institutes. It established a number of Colleges, some of which were later evolved into independent fully-fledged universities.

In 1963, a School of Medicine was established within the premises of the then Princess Margaret Hospital. In 1968 the School became a Faculty of Medicine of the University College of Dar es Salaam, a constituent college of the University of East Africa. With the creation of the University of Dar es Salaam in 1970, the Faculty became the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Dar es Salaam. In July 1991 the Faculty of Medicine was upgraded into a constituent collegeof the University of Dar es Salaam - the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS). The umbrella act for universities – The Universities Act number 7 of 2005 paved the way in 2007 for the elevation of MUCHS into a fully-fledged university - theMuhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS).

The University of Dar es Salaam Act number 12 of 1970 provided an enabling setting in 1996 for the transformation of former Ardhi Institute into a constituent college of the University of Dar es Salaam under the name the University College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS). Over a decade UCLAS was nurtured and its programs and infrastructureexpanded. The umbrella act for universities – The Universities Act number 7 of 2005 paved the way in 2007 for the elevation of UCLAS into an independent institution - theArdhi University (ARU).

Applications are invited from suitably qualified people for PhD Scholarships in Geography, Law and/or Political Science offered by the University of Dar es Salaam under the Everyday Humanitarianism in Tanzania Research Project. The project is funded by the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA).

DOWNLOAD PDF FILE YA MAELEZO KAMILI AND MODE OF APPLICATION:  Click link below to download attached document (PDF) for more Information: 
Attachment: 20200120_111004_UDSM_CALL FOR APPLICATIONS (PhD SCHOLARSHIP ).pdf 

Download reference books for free online from the best websites | Pakua Vitabu bure online kutoka mitandao mbalimbali

Reading is beneficial, because we can get a lot of information from the reading materials. Technology has developed, and reading books can be more convenient and easier. We can read books on our mobile, tablets and Kindle, etc. Hence, there are many books coming into PDF format. Below are some websites for downloading free PDF books where you can acquire as much knowledge as you want

We understand that reading is the simplest way for human to derive and constructing meaning in order to gain a particular knowledge from a source. This tendency has been digitized when books evolve into digital media equivalent – E-Books.

It would be nice if we’re able to download free e-book and take it with us. That’s why we’ve again crawled deep into the Internet to compile this list of 25 places to download free e-books for your use


























NECTA:New System to request National Examinations results for different levels

National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA in swahili know as "Baraza la Mitihani la Tanzania" is an agency of the Tanzanian government, headquartered in Dar Es Salaam at Mwengwe area, that proctors tests given nationally. It manages Education Examination in Tanzania

The National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA) is Government Institution which was established by the Parliamentary Act No. 21 of 1973. NECTA is responsible for the administration of all National Examinations in Tanzania.

The decision to establish NECTA was a follow-up of an earlier move, in April 1971, when Tanzania Mainland pulled out of the East African Examinations Council (EAEC) to conduct her own examinations. Zanzibar pulled out of EAEC in 1970. Before the pull out, between 1968 and 1971, Tanzania sat for foreign Secondary School Examinations conducted jointly by the East African Syndicate, which before then were conducted by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate alone. The Examinations conducted by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate then were the School Certificate and the Higher School Certificate Examinations.

Free CV Writing and Download, Cover/Job Application Letters, Interview Questions and It's Best Answers plus Examples. Click Here

It was established on 21 November 1973. Prior to that time the East African Examinations Council(EAEC) served Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.
The latter withdrew from the EAEC in 1970, and the Ministry of Education Curriculum and Examinations Section briefly took over examination proctoring for Mainland Tanzania when it withdrew from the EAEC in 1971.
The Tanzanian government began hiring employees for NECTA in 1971, and Parliamentary Act No. 21 of 1973 established NECTA

National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA) has introduced new system that allow students of different levels in Tanzania to request their results by writing required information as follow below:-
Completed year: 2019/2020


Candidate number: eg. PS0204011-132
NOTE: Make sure you fill your information very correctly so as system can retrieve data from database

MOE:SCHOLARSHIPS Opportunities at United Kingdom 2020/21 | Queen Elizabeth Commonwealth Scholarships (QECS)

1.0 Call for Application
The General public is hereby informed that, the Government of the United Kingdom has opened the new Queen Elizabeth Commonwealth Scholarships (QECS) to eligible Tanzanians to pursue Masters Studies in the hosting Universities for QECS in the academic year 2020-2021. Interested candidates are highly encouraged to apply under the Association of Commonwealth Universities

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2.0 Mode of Application
The application of the program and University should be done through QECS hosting Universities found in the following link below:
3.0 Submission
All applications should be made directly to the QECS hosting Universities before 4:00 PM (UCT) (7:00 PM EAST AFRICA TIME) on 15th January 2020.
It is important that applicants should read and understand all instructions when filling the application forms, attach all the required documents such as certified copies of academic certificates, transcripts, and birth certificates and submit them online through the QECS hosting Universities

Issued by
Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology,
Government City,
Mtumba block,
Afya Street,
P.O.BOX 10,
40479 DODOMA.


Teachers are the mothers of all professions. Professional teachers are important in the development of education and development of society. Because of this teachers who are effective and educated are needed to be produced. Teachers need to be updated. Good teachers‘ education is needed to teachers to enable them to be effective in psychomotor, affective and cognitive areas of professions.

1. Colleges and universities are blamed for producing incompetent teachers (Mosha, 2003).
Teachers do not have complete qualification. Students in teachers‘ professions in primary education are weakly professional. Much emphasis is put on the pedagogy than in content courses.
2. Globalization;
Very few teachers are updated as a result of globalization. There are new reforms and innovations in educational sectors; teaching and teachers education is keeping on changing. Expansionism (increase in the number of students and teachers) also brings a challenge to teachers.
Development of teachers‘ education is historical and also based on the economical and further is affected by political content and later social content. Teachers‘ education in Tanzania is not was not started from 1961 or 1964 (Tanganyika and Zanzibar independence respectively).
Abolition of slave trade (1860‘s);
It had a very important beginning in teachers‘ education. Preparation and production of professional teachers begun. Some institutions were started.
Linkage with teachers‘ education: slaves were to provide raw materials. African teachers were educated to provide people who could give education.
In Zanzibar (Mkunazini) was a centre to provide teachers education. Colonial missionaries were supposed to supervise the teachers‘ education; they were also responsible to educate Africans.
During colonial period; Germans decided to educate quality teachers (professional teachers) from local Africans. Teacher education was provided through imitation. Culture was similar.
In Tanzania, Germans started teachers‘ education at the beginning of 20th Century; in 1899 Germans introduced a teacher‘s education center in Tanga School. In 1902 Lutheran missionaries had a teacher training centre at Kidia (Moshi); Germans had 9 teachers who were Chagga by origin. The early preparation of teachers was simply done; there no specific institutions.
Outbreak of WWI; the initiatives of Germans come to an end because was badly affected economically, politically and socially. In 1919 the League of Nations gave Tanganyika to Britain.
British role in teachers‘ education;
In 1919 Tanganyika was under League of Nations with Britain as the oversea for independence. Few colleges were established to train teachers. There was a Director of education appointed in 1920‘s. The main aim of British is to train African teachers and re-open the Tanganyika to the World.
By 1945 British opened TTC‘s with Africans staff. Teachers were of two categories;-
Category 1; grade 2/ village school teachers;
Students were standard IV leavers. There were taught for 3 or 4 years for course. These four years were divided as follows;-
o First 2 years were for academic content subjects.
o Second 2 years were for professional training (pedagogical training) e.g. educational psychology.
Category 2; grade 1.senior primary teachers;
They took 2 years for course after standard ten (10)
1. Training centres were more located in urban areas than in rural areas; so as the European teams of staff to administer the TTC‘s.
2. Education was segregative; some got education while others lacked it. Colonial education curriculum emphasized mostly on western culture and it was theoretical I nature.
o British were to occupy senior managerial positions.
o They were trained to become civil servants
o Asians were trained to occupy middle managerial positions.
o Africans were trained to serve teachers, nurses medical auxiliaries and other assistants.
At independence; Tanganyika inherited all teachers‘ facilities and the curricula. The impacts of if inheritance; were that some European education facilities were integrated in non-colonial education. The condition of teachers‘ education in early 1960‘s was very difficult. The significant challenge was in manpower educational infrastructures;
Teachers‘ education was 1961 December we had few people with necessary educational qualifications to serve in administration in big economics works and social development works. In order to address these, the following were done;-
i. To develop social society and expand provision of education
ii. Curricular were revised, to include Africans contents.
iii. Segregation was abolished; through having single educational system through regionalism and cluster systems.
Dar es salaam university college was established so as to train secondary school teachers ( a branch of east African university, Makelele by then). The impact of this education after independence is that teacher education was divided into two categories namely;-
o University teachers
o College teachers.
When D.U.C was established the important degree was BED and emphasis was pedagogical skills. This created many content courses. When political pressures increased there was demand of university graduates and BED was expanded. The main aim was to prepare teachers who could respond to educational expansion.
Until 1992 more than 90% of the science and mathematical teachers were from outside. In 1962 Tanganyika had hardly 22 TTC‘s for producing teachers. We needed a rapid education expansion and training of our teachers of all levels; more colleges were started e.g. Morogoro T.C, Mpwapwa T.C, Butimba T.C, Marangu T.C and so forth.
In 1967 Tanzania attempted to develop quality teachers through education for self-reliance. The main aim was to democratize education. In 1970‘s more education was required because every one was eager to access education.
In 1977 there was a Musoma Resolution established to facilitate education for all; universal primary education; COBET was established. UPE was put into action in 1977.
The impact of UPE;
A raise of demand of teachers;
Cutting half of the teaching education time to 2 years. One year was sent in college and the other year in school on to get pedagogical skills in schools.
To introduce teachers distant training; the retired teachers were engaged. Primary schools leavers were recruited as Grade C or B teachers. Grade C teachers received crash programme to be taught teaching methodology, for 1 year. Grade B were taught for 4 years. 2 years for academic subjects and 2 years for pedagogical studies. However in 1992 grade B teachers were abolished. Both of them were important for rural education.
To build capacity of teachers and increasing a number of teachers in TTC‘s. Until 1980‘s more efforts were to increase students teachers to teach in colleges but also to help the government when education sector was liberalized. The MOE remained a supervisor of education after join-venture between a government and private sector. Universities had established colleges. Private universities were also established.
Tanzania at present;
Tanzania has adopted liberalization policy. From 2002 to 2007 there was PEDP so as to increase enrolnment and increase the response of teachers to that plan. From 2004 to 2009 there was SEDP so as to expand opportunities for secondary school education.
The impact of SEDP and PEDP;
1. Enrolment increased in Primary and secondary schools.
2. High demand for teachers in schools.
3. Impact on teacher education provision.
o Teacher education programme due to high demand for teachers.
o Form 6 leavers were hired and recruited after short-training (crash programme); they were given licenses to teach.
o There was integration of curriculum in some subjects.
It has a long history since colonial period to 1970‘s teacher education was very much respected. People were proud of it and very few people were selected to join;
Why? Only people with qualification experiences and competences were recruited for teacher education. Politics also entered into education and therefore teacher education was politically managed.
More emphasis was on secondary education and primary education leaving aside teacher education. In Kenya there was traditional teacher even before the coming of colonialism because,
1. There were teachers who were used to transmit the cultures from generation to another
2. There is no proper documentation of who were there, where, and how it was.
Teacher education in Kenya during colonialism;
It started in the mid-19th century by European missionaries. They introduced formal teacher education. The main aims were;
i. To increase teachers in the schools already established.
ii. To produce teachers to relieve missionaries from teaching to spread evangelism.
However after WWI (1914-1918) there was more demand for African mass education; therefore more schools were opened e.g. in early 1940‘s the Makelele college was established to train teachers for diploma in education in Kenya, Kenyatta college was established 1965. In 1966 there was Kenya science teachers college. In 1967 Kenya technical teachers college was established to train diploma teachers in technical subjects.
In 1966 the University of Nairobi College started to produce teachers with BA and BSc Education so as to teach in secondary schools. In 1970‘s the Bachelor of BAEd and BScEd was transformed to produce more teachers. In 1972 Kenyatta University College was established to produce more graduate teachers.
There are two main challenges;
o Professional is managed by non-professional teachers. Profession remained two academic (the emphasis is more on teaching subjects than pedagogical knowledge).
o Loss of status of teacher education. Mentoring service (previously) and normal (today).
o In decision-making teachers are not mainly involved, little input for professional development and lastly globalization and its impacts in the world on teachers‘ education.
In 1950‘s to 1960‘s there was much shortage of teachers in school. But until 1980‘s there was oversupply of teachers in Australia because there was large reduction in teacher resignation and leveling-off of students numbers in schools (maintenance).
In 1970‘s there was expansion of teachers‘ education in which many new colleges if advanced education and university were established. There is collaboration of one college and another college in teacher training. There is collaboration of one college and universities. This creates motivation.
Preparation of teachers;
Mainly BAEd for primary education teachers. Teachers are being prepared for 3 years for study and 1 year for teaching experience plan. Secondary education teachers are those with Bachelor degree in education and diploma of education.
Challenges of teacher education;
1. There are some shortages of teachers in Math‘s, science and computers technology.
2. Initial preparation, organization and development and evaluation of field experience is a major problem. Uniformity of teaching approaches is not available.
3. Induction programmes for career development are not well-communicated between schools and training institutions.
4. Teacher personnel; there are few teachers because many teachers had few students therefore decreased a demand for teachers. Financing teachers‘ education had been reduced.
Future plan of Australia;
The government formed the commission for the future; the main aims are;-
1. To be a focal point for institutions group and individuals in decision-making.
2. To involve teachers and these groups, institutions and individuals in policy development rather than pointing those stakeholders after the problems have occurred.
3. To develop institutions and organizations that responds to societal and individuals need in order to obtain a public participation.
Since 1976 China put an emphasis on the significance of teacher education. In this year it is a year since the open policy on the male children. After this there was increase if children and hence more demand for education. With open policy teacher education is seen as a machine tool in China because;-
o For education provision
o Important for cultivating a new generation to face the challenges of modern World.
Issues given emphasis;
1. To change and see teaching as a profession; a law was established pertaining to teacher education.
2. Increase of fund and improvement in teaching conditions, priority to distribute finance, distribute personnel and facilities, recruit teachers and admit good students was left to teacher education institutions.
3. Training of junior secondary schools, shortage of subjects, boarder areas and minority regions.
4. Presence of recommended-based administration based on (one board recommended for admission).
o Strong control over academic issues in teacher education.
o Developing morale, physical constitution, willingness to devote to teacher career and intelligences.
5. Establishment of lecture teams for teachers training to work in less-developed areas.
6. Access to self-taught examination systems for teachers in-service and to maintain the in-service teachers‘ development.
7. There was a condition, that after graduation all graduate should return for teaching;-
―teachers are engineers of human soul and the gardeners of the nation‘s flowers‖.
In 2004 MOE introduced a master of education programme called Master of education in China‘s rural areas.
Until early 1990‘s there were about 3.5million teachers in the formal school system.
Preparation of teachers;
Primary education teachers must have 10-12 years to general schooling and 2 years of professional education. Secondary schools teachers must have a minimum of university degree and 1 year of professional teaching or education. Generally there is no deficit of manpower in India but difficulty exists in some parts of the nation for example teachers‘ salaries are lower than other sectors.
Challenges of Teacher education in India;
1. Curricula for PRESET are not revised often to respond for changes.
2. There is mismatch between teacher education and availability of teachers; there is a shortage of teachers in vocational areas, musical and fine arts in secondary level.
3. Lack of higher or good graduates from universities and Boards of secondary education, because of low salaries and poor living conditions.
4. Time for preparation of teachers is not enough-therefore a little attention to competence in subjects‘ matters.
TASK 1. Make a comparative analysis of the history and status of teacher education in the following nations;
1. USA.
2. Britain.
3. Canada.
focusing on the following guidelines;
o Teachers preparation (duration and procedures),
o Status of Teacher education,
o Strategies to improve teacher education,
o Challenges.


Related image 
Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.
Conceptualizing the meaning of professional
Professional development of teacher is defined as
activities that develop an individual’s skills, knowledge, expertise and other
characteristics as a teacher.
definition recognizes that development can be provided in many ways, ranging
from the formal to the informal. It can be made available through external
expertise in the form of courses, coaching, mentoring, professional meetings,
workshops or formal qualification programmes, through collaboration between
schools or teachers across schools (e.g. observational visits to other
schools or teacher networks) or within the schools in which teachers work. In
this last case, development can be provided through coaching/mentoring,
collaborative planning and teaching, and the sharing of good practices. It also
includes informal experiences such as reading professional publications,
watching television documentaries related to an academic discipline, etc.
any ongoing learning opportunities that are available to teachers through their
education system or school can be termed as professional development.
all professional development programs can be effective. Effective professional
development is defined as professional development that produces changes in
teachers’ instruction practice which can be linked to improvements in student
achievement (Blazer, 2005)
The primary
purpose of professional development is to prepare and support teachers by
giving them knowledge and skills they need to help all students achieve high
standards of learning and development (U.S department of education, 1996). The
conception of professional development is therefore broader than career
development which is defined as the growth that occurs as the teacher moves
through the professional career cycle. It is also broader than staff development
which is the provision of organized in-service programs designed to foster the
growth of teachers. When looking at professional development, one must examine
the content of experiences, the process by which the professional development
will occur and the contexts in which it will take place. This perspective is in
a way new to teaching
In the past,
professional development available to teachers was staff development or in
service training usually consisting of workshops of short term courses that would
offer teachers new information on a particular aspect of their work or on the
latest instructional practices.
listed passively to outside experts and were then encouraged to apply
strategies in their own classrooms (Blazer, 2005). Teachers were proved with
few, if any opportunities for following-up activities and rarely applied their
new knowledge or skills when they returned to their classrooms (Joyce and
showers, 2002)
challenging student performance standards paired with rigorous sustainability
policies call for significant changes in professional development practices.
These changes cannot be accomplished by sending teachers to the short term
professional development efforts of the past. Professional development must be
more than training in new knowledge or instructional procedures. It must enable
teachers to move to the next level of expense and enhance their ability to make
changes that will result in increased student performance (French, 1997). This
professional growth will only occur if teachers are provided with expanded
learning opportunities, ample peer support, and extended time to practice,
reflect, critique, and the practice again (Cohen and Hill, 1998)
Therefore, in
recent years, the professional development of teachers has been considered as a
long-term process that includes regular opportunities and experiences planned
systematically to promote growth and development in the profession. This shift
has been so dramatic that many have referred to it as new image of teacher
learning, a new mode of teacher education, a revolution in education and even a
new paradigm of professional development
Give a brief
account on the following terms, professional development, career development,
teacher development, staff development, in service training (INSET)
Reflect on the
current educational program in Tanzania, who is responsible for designing and
conducting professional programs, is there any policy that guides its
implementation? What does this policy say?
Analyze the
professional development programs designed by the government and non government
organizations in Tanzania. What is the stance f these programs in the light of
the new paradigm of teacher learning
Rationale for professional development
Aside from the individual
satisfaction of financial gain that teachers may obtain as a result of
participating in professional development opportunities, the process of
professional development opportunities, the process of professional development
has a significant positive impact on teachers’ beliefs and practices, students’
learning and on the implementation of the educational reforms
2.1 Implementation of educational reforms
The current
emphasis on the professional development comes not from knowledge of
deficiencies but instead from growing recognition of education as a dynamic
professional  field (Guskey, 2000).
Educational researches are constantly discovering new knowledge about the
teaching and learning process. As the professional knowledge base expands, new
types of expertise are required of educators at all levels. And like
professionals in other fields, educators must keep abreast of this emerging
knowledge base and prepared to use it constantly refine their conceptual and
craft skills
Education being
a dynamic endeavor, change is inevitable. Teachers are constantly learning,
growing and adapting to new techniques, new content standards and new
curriculums. Teachers’ professional development is an essential component of
comprehensive school change/reform.
Teachers are the
center of educational reform because they must make every effort to ensure that
their students meet the high standards that districts and states have adopted
(Garetet l, 2001). They have most direct contact with students and considerable
control over what is taught and learning climate. (King and Newnann, 2000)
The American federation
of teachers has stated that, the nation cannot adopt rigorous stands, set forth
a visionary scenario, compile the best research about how students learn,
change text books and assessment, promote teaching strategies that have been
successful with wide range of students and change all the other elements
involved in systematic reform but without professional development, school
reform and improved achievement for all students will not happen.
continue to accumulate showing that student performance ins influenced by
teachers’ high quality professional development and that the effects of
increased teacher knowledge are observed across subject matter fields (Guskey,
2000 and showers, 2002). The American federation of teachers (2002) has
concluded that high quality professional development is essential to the
nation’s goal of high standards of learning for every child and that the most
important investment school districts can make
is to ensure the teachers continue to learn. The national commission on
teaching  and America’s future (1996)
reported that, investments in teachers knowledge and skills result in greater
increase in student achievements than other uses of the education dollar. The
time teachers spend with other knowledgeable educators engaging in teaching and
learning  is just as important  to students’ learning as the time teachers
spend teaching students
3.3 Teachers’ beliefs and practices
professional development experiences have a noticeable impact on teacher’s work
both in and out of the classroom especially considering that a significant
number of teachers throughout the world are under prepared for their professional
(Raimer 2002). Evidence how that, professional development has an impact on
teachers’ beliefs and behavior. Evidence also indicate that, the relationship
between teachers’ beliefs and their practice is not straight forward or simple
(Reimer’s 2003). On contrary, it is dialectic, moving back and forth between
change in beliefs and change in classroom practice (ibid)
Forms/models off professional development
1.0 meaning of professional development model
development models may be defined as a plan that guides the process of
designing professional development for teachers (Joyce and Weil, 1972). The
models can be seen as a design for learning which embodies a set of assumptions
about where knowledge about teaching practice comes from and how teachers’
acquire or extend their knowledge (Ingvarson, 1987)
Major models
include:  individually guided staff
development, observation/assessment, involvement in a development/improvement
process, training and inquiry model (sparks and Horsley, 1989). These models
present teachers with a wide variety of options and opportunities to enhance
their professional skills and knowledge (Guskey, 2000)
Sparks and
Loucks-Horsley (1990), in their extensive review of the research, suggest that
five types of staff development models are used for teachers:
GUIDED STAFF DEVELOPMENT. Individuals identify, plan and pursue activities they
believe will support their own learning.
Teachers are observed directly and given objective dataand feedback about their
classroom performance.
IN A DEVELOPMENT/IMPROVEMENT PROCESS. Teachers developcurriculum, design
programs, or become involved in school improvement processes to solvegeneral or
specific problems.
Teachers engage in individual or group instruction in which they
acquireknowledge or skills.
Teachers identify and collect data in an area of interest, analyze and
interpret thedata, and apply their findings to their own practice.
these five models, the most widely used and researched is TRAINING.
guided-staff development model
(“I have
come to feel that the only learning which significantly influences behavior is
self-discovered, self-appropriated learning by Rodgers
A process through which teachers plan
for and pursue activities they believe will promote their own learning.
Designed by the teacher.
Teacher defined goals and activities
The key
characteristic of this model is that, learning is designed by teachers. The
teacher determines his/her own goals and select activities that will result in
the achievement of those goals. Teachers read professional publications, have
discussion with colleagues and experiment with new instructional strategies on
their own. This may occur, with or without the existence of formal professional
Individually-guided – Underlying Assumptions
o  Individuals can judge their own needs and that they
are capable of self direction and self-initiated learning.
o  Adults learn most efficiently when they initiate and
plan their learning rather than spend their time in irrelevant activities of
little interest.
o  Individuals will be motivated when they select their
own leaning goals based on their personal of their needs.
1.2 Observation/assessment
is the breakfast of champions” by
& Johnson- The One Minute
The model
proposed that, one of the best way to learn is by observing others or by being
by being observed and receiving specific feedback from the observation (Guskey,
2000). Analysing and reflecting on the information from observation assessment
can be a valuable means of professional development. Coaching, mentoring and
clinical supervision can be good examples of this model.
Observation/Assessment – Underlying Assumptions
o  Observation
and assessment of classroom teachers can benefit both parties – the observer
and the observed
o  When
teachers see positive results from their efforts to change they are more apt to
engage in improvement
o  Reflection
and analysis are central means of professional growth”.  Loucks-Horsley (1987, p. 61)
o  Reflection
by an individual on his or her own practice can be enhanced by another’s
Because this model may involve
multiple observations and conferences spread over time, it can help teachers to
ee that change is possible. As teachers apply new strategies, they can see
changes both in their own and their students’ behaviour.  In some instances, measurable improvements in
students’ learning will also be observed.
Coaching is one of the examples
where teachers visit one another’s classroom, gather objective data about
student performance or teacher behaviour and give feedback (Joyce and Showers,
1.3 Involvement in a development/improvement process
o  Sometimes teachers are asked to:
n  Develop or adapt curriculum
n  Design programs
n  Engage in a systematic school improvement processes
o  Any or all of these with the focus of improving
classroom instruction and/or curriculum.
o  Successful completion requires the teacher to gain
additional knowledge to complete the task.
o  This model focuses on the combination of learnings
that result from the involvement of teacher in the process.
in a Development/ Improvement Process – Underlying Assumptions
o  People working closest to the job best understand
what is required to improve their performance.Given opportunities, teachers can
effectively bring their unique perspectives to the tasks of improving teaching
in their schools.
o  Adults learn more easily when they have a need to
know or a problem to solve (Knowles, 1980).
o  Teachers acquire important knowledge or skills
through their involvement in school improvement or curriculum development
1.4 Training model (

the purpose of providing training in any practice is not simply to generate the
external visible teaching “moves” that bring that practice to bear in the
instructional setting but to generate the conditions that enable the practice
to be selected and used appropriately and integratively …a major, perhaps the
major, dimension of teaching skill is cognitive in nature
. Showers, Joyce, and Bennett (1987, p.
85-86) )
The training
model involves presenter or team of presenters that shares its ideas and
expertise through a variety of group-based activities. The model formats
include large group presentations and discussions, workshops, seminars,
demonstrations, role playing and microteaching.
Training session
is conducted with a clear set of objectives or learner outcomes that may
n  Awareness or knowledge
n  Skill development
Training – Underlying Assumptions
o  The model assumes that teachers can change their
behaviors and learn to replicate behaviors in the classroom that were not
previously in their repertoire. Teachers are wonderful learners who can master
about any kind of teaching strategy or implement almost any technique as long
as adequate training is provided.
o  There are behaviors and techniques that are worthy
of replication by teachers in the classroom
1.5 Joyce and Showers model of professional development
of teachers
Joyce and Shower
(2002) describe the professional development for effective transfer of
knowledge, skills to teachers as well as effective means for change in
attitude, beliefs and teachers’ practices in schools. Joyce and Shower (2002)
present teachers as teachers affect students by what they teach and the kinds
of places (social climate) they are.
The model has
five major elements that are theory, demonstration, practice and coaching
According to the
figure, it is evident that even though teachers are very enthusiastic about the
training they receive, they rarely apply it in sustained way that can lead to
long-term change in practice. The feedback (teacher receives feedback on their
practice so that they can see how well the new approach is working) and
coaching (the coach helps the teacher discuss the teaching in a supportive
environment with other teachers and consider how it might be improved) are very
important components for an effective professional development program.
5.6 Inquiry model (“the
most effective avenue for professional development is cooperative study by
teachers themselves into a problem and issues arising from their attempts to
make practice consistent with their educational values…[The approach] aims to
give greater control over what is to count as valid educational knowledge to
teachers.”(Ingvarson, 1987, p. 15.17)
formulate questions about their own practice and pursue answers to those
questions. Inquiry involves the identification of a problem, data collection
(from the research literature and classroom data), data analysis, and changes
in practice followed by the collection of additional data. The inquiry can be
done individually or in small groups. This model is built on the belief that
the mark of a professional teacher is the ability to take “reflective
o  Teacher inquiry may be a solitary activity, be done
in small groups, or be conducted by school faculty.
o  May be formal or informal
o  May occur in the classroom, at a teacher center, or
results from a university class
o  Research is an important activity in which teachers
should be engaged, although they rarely participate in it other than as
– Underlying Assumptions
o  Teachers are intelligent, inquiring individuals with
legitimate expertise and important experience.
o  Teachers are inclined to search for data to answer
pressing questions and to reflect on the data to formulate solutions.
o  Teachers will develop new understanding as they
formulate their questions and collect their own data to answer them.
(Loucks-Horsley et al., 1987
Evaluation of professional development
2.0 Meaning of evaluation of professional
Evaluation of
professional development program is an important aspect to determine its
quality and to gain direction in improves it (Guskey, 2000). According to
Guskey, good evaluations provide information that sound, meaningful and
sufficiently reliable to use in making thoughtful and responsible decisions
about professional development and effects.
Therefore, it is
within the objectives of this study to design the model that will be used to
assess the impact of the professional development programs prepared to enable
teachers use the ICM lessons in their classrooms for the aim of improving
students’ achievements
The main
question here is that, how does one conduct good evaluations of professional
development program for teachers? To answer this question, models of
professional development including Tyler’s model, Stufflebeam’s model and
Guskey evaluation models have been surveyed. Based on these models, some
important aspects will be used to form some models that will guide this study.
The evaluation models can be used to help in defining parameters of an evaluation.
What concepts to study and the processes or methods need to extract critical
2.1Tyler’s evaluation model
Tyler in 1947,
believed that the essential first step in any evaluation  is the classification  of the program or activity’s objectives. Once
clear objectives are specified, evaluation can the focus on the extent to which
those goals were achieved. If discrepancies are discovered between the
objectives and the outcomes, then modifications in the program can be made to
enhance its effectiveness. The focus f this model is on the objectives and
outcomes and thus the process of implementation needs another model.
Stufflebeam’s evaluation model
This model
focuses on decision making processes rather than on centering on
objective-product model of the Tyler. The model is based on the four different
kinds of evaluation information that one needs to make decisions during the
evaluation process. They include; context, input, process and product (CIPP) evaluation information
Context Evaluation helps
decision makers to assess needs, problems, assets and opportunities while
defining goals and actions. Planning decisions and context information are two
key concepts addressed during context evaluations (Randall, 1969). Decision
makers need to consider the selection of problem components and set priorities
in terms of importance. They also need to determine the strategy or strategies
that will be used to carry out or overcome these problem components. The main
methods for data collection during context evaluations are research surveys,
literature reviews, and expert opinions.
Input Evaluation helps decision
makers to assess plans for their feasibility and cost‐effectiveness
for achieving planning objectives. It entails structuring decisions and action
plans that depend on design information. This stage of evaluation generally
sees decision makers setting up and confirming plans and budgets before actions
are undertaken. This may include comparing competing plans, funding proposals,
allocating resources, scheduling work and assigning human resources.
sees decision
makers assess actions and implementations of plans that are being achieved. At
this stage of an evaluation, the design has been structured and put on trial.
is collected to determine the effectiveness of the objectives, and to help
designers and evaluators to gauge the success of the process. Main methods for
data collection are baseline observations, test results that can be compared
against a time frame sequence, and comparing stated objectives with observed
effects (Randall, 1969).
aids in
identifying and assessing outcomes, those intended and unintended, short‐term and long‐term. It also
provides a platform for clients to stay focused on their goals and to gauge the
effort’s success in meeting targeted needs. The product information gathered
from testing the completed designs contain evidence about the effectiveness in
attaining short and long range goals, and can also be used to compare with that
of another program or design (Randall 969).
The CIPP model
helped educators recognize the value and importance of sound evidence in
decision making process. It also broadens educators’ perspectives on evaluation
and brought clarity to ongoing evaluation procedures.
Guskey evaluation models
Guskey (2000)
proposed a five level model of evaluation for any professional program for
The first level
of evaluation addresses teacher’s reactions to the experience. It measures,
teachers initial satisfaction with the in-service experience but not its
quality or worth. The information gathered at this level can help improve the
design and delivery of professional programs.
The second level
of evaluation focuses on measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are
the teachers developed throughout the in-service experience. Analysis of
information from this measurement provides a basis for improving the content,
format, and organization of the in-service program or activity
The third level
of evaluation focuses on gathering information about school support to
encourage and facilitate the in-service participants with the implementation of
the innovation initiatives. This information is used to document and improve
organizational support and also to inform further change initiatives.
The fourth level
evaluation, concentrates on teachers use of the new knowledge and skills
(gained through the in-service program) in classroom practices. Measurement of
use is taken after sufficient time has passed to allow teachers to adapt the
new ideas and practices into their school settings. Analysis of this
information provides evidence of the current level of use and can help to
restructure future activities to facilitate better and more consistent
The last level
of evaluation focuses on students outcomes. Measurement of students’ learning
typically include cognitive indicators of student performance and achievement
but also effective indicators (attitudes and dispositions) and psychomotor
indicators (skills and behaviours)
Describe the
professional development models commonly used in our education system for
teachers’ in-service programs
Discuss with
specific examples how the professional development programs for teachers have
been conducted in Tanzania.