Explain the meaning and objectives of colonial economy
Colonial economy was introduced in order to increase production distribution and consumption of material wealth.
Why colonial economy was introduced to Africa
Colonial economy in Africa was introduced due to the industrial
revolution in Europe which led to a need for raw materials, markets,
areas of investment and labourers. In order to solve those problems,
Europeans established five economic activities such as agriculture,
mining, industry, trade and infrastructure.
The Concept of Direct Rule, Indirect Rule, Assimilation and Association
Explain the concept of direct rule, indirect rule, assimilation and association
This is a colonial system of administration, whereby, African
traditional rules were involved in administering their fellow Africans
at the local level while the colonial officials and administrators
administered at the higher level.Indirect rule was pioneered by Sir
Fredrick John Lugard who was the British High Commissioner to Nigeria in
Reasons for the British to use indirect rule in their colonies
The British colonial government used indirect rule in most of her colonies in Africa because of the following reasons.
Britain drew more attention to her colony in India, thus it was difficult for her to introduce direct rule in Africa.
did not have enough manpower to administer her colonies in Africa. For
instance, in 1900 it was reported that the British had only 42 British
officials in her Nigerian colony. This number was not sufficient to
administer the whole colony. The shortage of personnel was caused by
lack of experienced workers. Moreover, British citizens were not willing
to work in Tropical Africa for fear of Tropical diseases and other
physical problems such as transportation.
funds were set by the British government for the maintenance of the
colonies. It was convenient for the colonial administrators to use the
indirect rule system in the colonies so as to reduce administrative
indirect rule proved to be effective and efficient in their Indian
colony; therefore, the British government was inspired to apply it in
British thought of using the indirect rule in order to overcome
resistances from Africans. Consequently, Africans rulers were made to
feel that their status was honored by British, as this system of
administration gave them an opportunity of keeping some of the money
corrected in form of taxes for their native treasuries. That money was
spent for paying messengers and policemen salaries. However, the local
African chiefs retained the money for their personal use.
barriers such as poor infrastructure, presence of mountains, thick
forests and dangerous animals in the colonial African forces the British
to use indirect rule.
language barrier between the British and the Africans forced the
British to use indirect rule. Neither Africans nor Europeans understood
the language of the other. Hence, they used interpreters.
This was a colonial system of administration whereby the colonies were
governed by Europeans officials at the top position, Arabs Akidas and
Liwalis were at the bottom. The Germans preferred this system of
administration in their metropolitan country.
‘similar to’. The French used this term to refer to a system of
administration that aimed at creating French Black Africans among the
West Africans who would be French citizens. The French wanted the French
Black Africans to enjoy the same status and privileges or suffer
penalties like any French citizen in France.
The assimilation policy was first used in Indo-China and Algeria and
later introduced in the four communes of Senegal-Goree, St. Louis,
Rufisque and Dakar-in 1854 and spread to other French colonies in
Africa. the assimilation policy proved to be successful when it was
applied in Morocco. In Senegal the assimilation policy was introduced by
Lewis, a trench governor, between 1854 and 1865.
Characteristics of assimilation policy
The French regarded their colonies as their overseas provinces thus the colonies were closely attached to France.
citizens within the French colonies enjoyed the privileges and the
rights that were given to any French citizen in the metropolis.
African colonies under the French rule were represented in lower House
of parliament. This showed that there was political integration of the
Africans with France.
was a close economic relationship between France and her colonies in
Africa. The French currency was used in the colonies, an indication that
the colonies were integrated to the metropolis country.
had intention of making the Africans in their colonies to be good
French citizens through dictatorship that forced the Africans to learn
French language, follow the French laws, apply French civil and
political system, be Christians and adopt French manners.
encountered a lot of difficulties in West Africa, since their attitude
towards Africans culture and African chiefs were negative.
The Association Policy
This was the system of French colonial administration that prevailed in
the colonies after the failure of the assimilation policy. Unlike
assimilation, association policy respected the culture of Africans and
allowed them to develop independently, and did not force them to adapt
The association policy was practiced in Africa after the failure of the
assimilation policy. It insisted on the relationship between the
Africans and the French being that of association and not otherwise. The
association had to use the indigenous elites who were trained in France
as administrators to mediate between fellow Africans and French
The major purpose of association was to create mutual economic
development for both the Africans and the French. However, the
implementation of the association policy was impractical, since the
Africans had their traditional institutions such as custom and
African rulers were used by the colonial administration to fulfill their
demands such as collection of tax, labor recruitments and maintaining
peace and order in their areas. African chiefs who failed to perform
such duties were replaced.
Africans traditional rulers were not given any authority to execute
anything through their own initiatives without the consent of the French
Unlike the British colonies, the French association policy limited the
Africans in their colonies of the right of free speech, trade union
activities and freedom of press. This policy of administration wanted
the French colonial government to respect the culture of the people in
the colonies, and allow them to develop independently instead of forcing
them to adapt French culture.
Moreover the association policy of the French treated the other Africans
as second class-citizens; they were not obligated to follow the French
civil and criminal laws but the assimilees remained as French citizen
with all rights. However the non-citizen subjects could suffer arbitrary
arrest or serve a longer term in French army than the citizen, a thing
that motivated them to be French citizens.
The new French policy of association encouraged the colonial
administrators to respect the African cultures and give them freedom of
developing separately. However this policy made Africans in the colonies
to be regarded as second-class citizens and French criminal and civil
laws could not be applied to them. The Africans were governed by a
system of law known justice indigiene. This law made Africans to serve
the army for a long time by force or face arbitrary arrest; as a result
Africans opted in becoming French citizens.
Africans had the right of maintaining their culture. Examples, of such
cultural practices were polygamy and Islamic religion in West Africa.
The Motive for the Application of Various Colonial Administrative Systems
Appraise the motive for the application of various colonial administrative systems
The motive for the application of indirect rule
The major reasons that made Europeans to initiate and apply the indirect rule system of administration in Africa were:
The Europeans did not want to interfere with the African traditional systems of administration.
Europeans administrators wanted their instructions or orders to appear
as if they were emanating directly from the African traditional rulers.
This was aimed at reducing African resistances against the European
The Europeans wanted the African chiefs to appear as the ones giving orders to their subordinates (fellow Africans).
The Europeans introduced the indirect rule system with an assumption of civilizing the Africans.
other areas, indirect rule was used when the system of direct rule had
proved failure. For example, the British colonial government decided to
use indirect rule in Tanganyika to avoid what happened to the Germans.
The reasons or motives for the application of assimilation policy
The assimilation policy made by European countries that employed the
policy in their colonies to consider their culture and civilization as
superior to those of the colonized people (Africans). The French
believed that their culture was the best in the world, and that they had
enlightened their colonies with their rich heritage of civilization.
Some of the reasons for introducing the assimilation policy in Senegal were:
four communes of Senegal consisted of 90% of mulattoes who emerged
after the establishment of St. Louis in 1659, a trading post where many
French traders (male) intermingled with African women; this led to the
creation of light-skinned population (mulatto). Moreover, the mulattoes
could be identified more with the French culture than that of the
Africans, thus it was easy for the French to assimilate them.
Africans in the four communes-Goree, Dakar, St. Louis and Rufisque were
quite familiar with the white traders in their communes, thus it was
easy for them to adapt with the assimilation system.
four communes of Senegal had a higher percentage of the converted
Christian; it was easy to accept the assimilation policy applied by the
government in their country.
The Similarities and Differences of Colonial Administrative Systems
Analyse the similarities and differences of the colonial administrative systems
The similarities of direct and indirect rule
Both were colonial systems of administration with one major interest of
exploiting Africans and their resources. The two colonial administrative
systems used their state organs to suppress the Africans. Their organs
were police, courts and prisons. In addition, the two system of colonial
administration used African traditional chiefs to supervise colonial
works in their areas. However, African rulers who supported colonial
administration did not get full support from their people; they were
regarded as puppets or traitors. Lastly, both policies maintained racial
discrimination. The Europeans were favored and considered superior to
Africans. All high ranking jobs in the government were reserved for
Europeans while Africans held the lower position of jobs in their local
The differences between direct and indirect rule
direct rule did not use the traditional Africans chiefs as their
intermediaries while the indirect rule used the African chiefs. For
instance, in Kenya the British used some Kikuyu chiefs as paramount
chiefs, like chiefs Koinange wa Mbiyu and many others. Germans used
direct rule in her colonies in African including Tanganyika.
indirect rule practiced by the British did not great enmity from the
Africans because African traditional chiefs were involved in the
colonial administration, and their subjects were loyal to them. This was
not the case with the direct rule employed by the Germans, since they
experienced frequent resistances due to their harsh and brutal treatment
it was easy for the indirect rule administration convince African
traditional chiefs to mobilize their subjects to participate in various
colonial tasks while the direct rule administration rule encountered
difficulties in mobilizing Africans to perform their colonial duties and
as a result opted to use force to make Africans participate in their
various colonial duties. For example, the Germans in Tanganyika forced
southern people to work in their colonial plantations.
indirect rule system of administration had less costs of administration
unlike the direct rule that required many Europeans to perform all
tasks of administrations hence high costs of administration.
rule was characterized by the use of force and racial superiority. For
instance, the Germans considered themselves to be superior to other
races. Brutality was also characteristic of direct rule, whereby
Africans were handled brutally by colonial administrators. On other hand
the indirect rule system of administration used African local chiefs in
handling their people and at the same time performing colonial duties.
Despite all the differences stated above between direct and indirect
rule, both administrative system was created in order to safeguard the
interest of the colonialists and not to benefit the Africans.
The similarities between the direct rule and the assimilation policy
Both the colonial administration system used European officials at the higher administrative position in their colonies.
colonial system of administration ensured that Africans were subjected
to colonial laws that exploited Africans through tax payment, and forced
labor, and deprived Africans of the right to vote.
colonial system of administration created positions of chiefs in areas
that had no central authorities. For instance, the British did this in
some parts of Nigeria and Kenya while the France formulated
chieftainship in Senegal.
Both colonial administrative systems exploited the African natural resources, such as minerals, forests and rivers.
Both colonial administrative system underrated and ignored the traditional African chiefs.
The differences between the direct rule and the assimilation policy
British colonies were separately administered by an appointed governor
from Britain, while the French colonies where considered similar to
other provinces of France.
direct rule involved separate administration of African colonies, as
opposed to the assimilation policy which involved the administration of
all African colonies as a federation.
British colonies formulated the legislative councils in the colonies
and discussed policy that governed the colonies. Thus the British
colonies had no representative in house of commons. On the other hand,
the French colonies elected representative to the chamber of deputies of
laws that were used by the British in the colonies were those passed by
the legislative council in the colonies, while those enacted in the
French colonies in Africa were the laws created in France.
assimilation policy made the Africans who were in French colonies to be
French citizens and enjoy all republican rights. This was opposed by
the British colonies, whereby no matter what position someone may hold
in a colonial state, still he remained the subject of British colony.
The similarities between the assimilation policy and indirect rule
Both systems used crude exploitation measure like taxation, land alienation and forced labor.
policies were based on misbelieve about Africans. Europeans considered
their religion, races, education, policies and other kind of
civilization as superior and thus they had a mission to civilize the
both systems, the African chiefs were used as a means to achieve what
colonial masters wanted. This caused the chiefs not to work for the
interest of their people, nor be loyal to them, but to the Europeans.
policies maintained racial discrimination. The Europeans were favored
and considered more superior than Africans. All high-ranking jobs in the
government were reserved for Europeans while Africans held the lower
positions of jobs in their local areas.
both systems policy-making and legislation were made by their home
National Assembly and were sent to the colonies to be implemented by the
governor and local authorities through the secretary of state.
laws which were enforced in both systems originated from their home
government judicial systems. This means that the systems ignored the
traditional institutions and laws made by them.
The difference between the assimilation and indirect rule
French used the centralized rule in her colonies. All French colonies
had their headquarters in Dakar, Senegal, and the Governor-General was
the one who administered all the colonies. The entire system of
administration was appointed by leaders from their home country, while
the British administration used governors to administer colonies. The
governor received the order from the secretary of the colony.
attitude they had toward their colonies was different. The British
regarded their colonies as distinct entities from their mother colonies
while the French regarded their colonies as their overseas provinces.
The provinces could even provide representative to French parliament. In
1914, Blaise Diagne became the first African representative in the
French assimilation policy designed Africans who were French citizens.
These were granted all civil rights and favor given to the French
citizens. On the other hand, the British policy never gave any privilege
of that nature to Africans in their colonies.
British policy preserved traditional method of selecting chiefs and
local leaders. The French on other hand destroyed and never respected
local governments, hence they directly chose and appointed their own
African officials who were mostly not popular to the people they were
the indirect system, the British allowed African chiefs to collect
taxes and supervise the expenditure of some funds they collected while
the French collected taxes and spent at their own discretion.
revenue management of the two systems was quite different; while the
French West Africa collected all the tax and spent it to its headquarter
in Dakar, Senegal, and was managed by Governor-general for equal
distribution and development of all its colonies, for the British each
colony was given the freedom to spend the revenue collected for the
benefit of that colony.
indirect rule that was imposed by the British in their colonies did not
disrupt the traditional African culture. On the other hand, the French
assimilation policy ignored and destroyed the African culture in the
Similarities between the assimilation and the association policies
Both were metropolitan administration systems introduced in French colonies.
Both systems of administration aimed at plundering the natural resources of Africans.
The differences between the assimilation and association policies
association policy was a colonial administrative system in which France
had to respect the culture of her colonial people. Assimilation policy
on other hand was the system of administration used by French in which
the Africans were taught how to think and act as French citizens, aiming
at colonizing Africans by transforming them into French citizens.
The assimilation policy was economically expensive compared to association system which did not demand more French funds.
the association policy, colonies were regarded as other colonies in
Africa and thus they were not close to the colonial master, while the
assimilation policy the colonies were regarded as their overseas
provinces. Thus, the colonies were closely attached to the colonial
association policy made the Africans to be regarded as second-class
citizens, while the assimilation policy Africans enjoyed the privilege
and rights that governed any French citizen in the metropolis.
The similarities between the association policy and direct rule
Both were metropolitan administrative systems with one major interest of exploiting African resources and labor force.
two systems were characterized by the use of force and racial
superiority. For instance, Germans who practiced direct rule felt
superior to other races.
both systems the authoritarian approach was used. For instance, African
press, trade union and economic activities were suppressed by colonial
both systems, colonial imperialists took control of their colonies for a
long time, for example, the white settlers in Zimbabwe under direct
rule and the French colonies in West Africa.
Both colonial administrative systems aimed at plundering the natural resources of Africa.
The differences between the association policy and direct rule
association policy did not experience great enmity as it respected
African culture, while direct rule experienced great enmity from
Africans due to their harsh and brutal rule.
association system has less cost of administration unlike direct rule
which required many Europeans to perform administrative tasks which led
to higher costs of administration.
association system of administration was used by French government
after the failure of assimilation while direct rule was used by German
colonial power and British in area where they thought indirect system
could not work.
direct rule the European settlers’ population was big in colonies,
while in association policy Africans were also allowed to live in their
colonial master’s country.
The similarities between association policy and indirect rule
Both colonial administrative systems used in African colonies.
Both systems used African intermediaries in their administration and preserved traditional methods of choosing leaders.
both policies whites occupied higher administrative posts, while the
Africans occupied the lower positions in the administration. All offices
from district officers, commissioners and governors were occupied by
the British and the French.
Both systems used crude ways of ruling: exploiting, taxation and forced labor.
systems were introduced after observing the shortcomings of other
systems used previously. For example, association was used after the
weaknesses of assimilation policy while indirect rule was introduced
after observing the shortcomings of direct rule.
The differences between the association and indirect rule
association policy encouraged the French colonial administrators to
respect the African culture, while the indirect rule system of
administration disregarded the African traditional culture but only used
traditional chiefs for their interests.
French emphasized on the use of French language on her colonies, while
the British on the other hand considered and allow the use of local and
native languages together with English.
French association policy still maintained aim of transforming Africans
into French by making the laws whereby non-citizens faced arbitrary
arrest, serving the army for a long time, while the British made no
attempt to transform the Africans.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Impact of the Colonial Administrative Systems on Africa
Evaluate the strengths, weaknesses and impact of the colonial administrative systems on Africa
Strength and weaknesses of indirect rule
avoided African resistance by appointing traditional rulers to rule on
their behalf. Hence, all complaints were directed to traditional African
It was cheap, as local chiefs were used to mobilize their people to pay taxes and work as forced laborers.
rule created imbalance of development among African states. Areas which
had local chiefs assisting the colonial government had development on
social services like schools, hospitals and roads while those which had
no chiefs in their areas had no or inadequate social services. Such
situations had led to many conflicts among Africans after independence.
had created social differences among Africans. The chiefs’ families and
loyal families got privilege of getting social services such as
education, hospitals and many more while the rest of the community were
not getting such facilities.
developed as an impact of indirect rule. African chiefs who were
entrusted to rule on behalf of colonialists considered themselves
superior to other in their land. For example, Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda
created disunity among Ugandan when he declared the Buganda kingdom
independent in 1960.
African chiefs became puppets of the administrators and did not serve their people.
The indirect rule cemented centralized bureaucracy through the use of the district commissioners.
The strengths and weaknesses of direct rule
system solved the shortage of employment among the European population.
For example, Germany offered employment to her people in the colonies
she occupied. Hence, she managed to reduce the rate of unemployment of
system managed to suppress resistance, since it ensured that the
colonies had enough white military officials to safeguard their
interests. For instance, the Abushiri war of resistance of 1888 was
suppressed by the German colonial administration. Some weaknesses of direct rule were:
use of harsh and brutal means to make Africans meet colonial demands
such as production of raw materials and paying taxes. Their approach led
to many sufferings of the Africans that included death or imprisonment.
undermined the pre-existing African traditional rulers. For instance,
the German administration in Tanganyika removed the African traditional
rulers, replacing them with Arab Akidas and Liwalis from the coastal
Weaknesses and impact of assimilation policy
Due to constraints they encountered, the French were forced to loosen their ties by initiating another system of ruling known asassociation.
major reason that made the French to drop the assimilation policy of
administration was that, the policy proved quite impractical because it
could not make an African a French citizen. It managed to change the
person mentally and morally but the person remained inferior because he
remained a black man who could not even be accepted by fellow Africans
who were not assimilated and would neither be accepted in the European
world. On other hand, association gave freedoms to Africans in the
colonies to develop in their chiefdoms using their own culture.
assimilation system proved to be too expensive. As the French kept on
expanding their territory in Africa, it was a burden to assimilate more
of the Africans inhabitants since the French government could incur more
costs for building more social facilities such as schools, hospitals,
churches and many more. Thus the assimilation system found itself in a
arose fears among Frenchmen in France that the assimilated Africans
could bring economic challenge to them, since they would get equal
rights as other Frenchmen, particularly in trade activities. Thus, they
thought of discrediting the assimilation policy in order to safeguard
their own interests. Many African traditional authorities were replaced
with eroded assimilated rulers who had been brainwashed with the French
was a great gap among Africans as an effect of assimilation policy, as
the assimilees were favored by the colonial government while the other
people from other community were exploited a great deal. The assimilees
were exempted from taxpaying and forced labor because they were
considered French citizens, while the unassimilated were forced to pay
tax and were subjected to forced labor.
African colonies were regarded as part and parcel of France, since the
assimilation system of administration considered their colonies as their
became an official language in most of African countries that were
colonized by French (Francophone countries). The reason behind such
decision was the impact of assimilation whereby many Africans were
influenced by the French language.
Factors that led to assimilation policy to fail in West Africa
African communities with strong cultural ties refused to accept the
French assimilation policy and abandon their traditional way of living.
traditional chiefs discredited the assimilation system because it
threatened their authority and assimilees did not accept being under the
African chiefs, as they regarded themselves to be superior to them.
disapproved the assimilation policy for it wanted them to become
Christian, while they wished to maintain their Islamic faith.
spread of Islamic religion in West African communes became an obstacle
for the spread of assimilation system, since the system encouraged
people to be converted to Christianity.
Africans were not motivated to participate in political affairs of France.
Strengths of association policy
It did not interfere with African cultural practices such as religion, custom and traditions.
The association policy considered the assimilated Africans as French citizens.
It did not apply French civil and criminal law to Africans in the colonies.
Weaknesses of the association policy
association policy was more authoritarian and withheld Africans rights
to freedom of expression, trade union activities and the press freedom.
It forced Africans who were not assimilated to serve French colonial army for longer period than the assimilated ones.
It regarded the non-assimilated Africans as second class citizens.
Colonial Military and Colonial Legal Institutions
The Meaning Of Colonial Military And Colonial Legal Institutions
Explain the meaning of colonial military and colonial legal institutions
Colonial military legal institution some time refers to colonial state
apparatus that were responsible to protect colonial interests, colonial
military force included:
The army force
These institutions were concerned with the maintenance of law, order and
the security of the colonial state to ensure that colonialists achieve
their ultimate goals. The British established their military
institutions in East Africa and central Africa. In East Africa it was
referred to as a East Africa Rifles it has the duty of protecting Uganda
In central Africa it was known as central Africa Rifles of Nyasaland
(Malawi). The two military institution were joined in 1902 and formed
the king‟s African Rifles (KAR) the KAR had battalions in every British
territory. KAR was established in Tabora Tanganyika in 1919. The KAR
recruited soldiers from Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika and Malawi.
Another part of the colonial military institution was the police force.
This recruited cadets in the colonies or externally. The police
recruited from outside the colonies were from India, Europe and some
were Nubians from Sudan.
The colonialist always recruited their force to foreign land which would
make it easy for these workers to be fierce ruthless and harsh to the
people of the foreign land.
On the other hand the French had thier army which was very popular among
the French West African colonies such as Senegal, Guinea and Mali.
Germany never had a stable recognised army; they preferred hired
mercenaries from other parts of the world and Africa.
The major reason for establishing the colonial military force was to
defend the White colonial administrators in the colonies and safeguard
colonial interests against internal and external threats.
In addition, the colonial army had a duty of suppressing and exploiting
Africans with the help of other established colonial organs such as the
police, the prison and the judiciary without forgetting the colonial
administration, since colonialism was very much resented and resisted by
The top and middle positions of the army were dominated by the European
officials and the lowest levels consisted of Africans. The Africans were
included in the colonial army in the period of world wars I and II. For
instance the KAR had all white soldiers in its army during the word
Africans were later recruited in this army in order to suppress the
Germans in East Africa. Many of the East Africa KAR soldiers offered
their services in Burma, Egypt, Ethiopia, Sri Lanka and Somalia.
The police force
The colonial police force was created in order to ensure that peace and
order weremaintained in their colonies. In addition it made sure that
Africans paid taxes, produced raw materials such as cash crops
production in the colonial plantations and performed public works such
as building railways, and roads when required by the colonial
The other role of the police was to suppress the unacceptable African
practices in the eyes of Europeans such as human sacrifice, slavery and
the buying of the dead bodies. Police caught African people who
committed crimes and brought them before the court of the law for
European justice to take its course. In Tanganyika the first police
force initiated in 1919, under the command of Dutch officers from South
Prisons were created in the African colonies in order to discipline and
guard African prisoners who were convicted and sentenced by the colonial
judicial system. Many African prisoners during colonial rule were those
who failed to pay taxes or refused to work in the colonial plantations
and for public services.
The Functions of each Colonial Military and Colonial Legal Institutions
Analyse critically the functions of each colonial military and colonial legal institutions
Major functions of the colonial military institutions
To defend of colonial boundaries:The
colonial administration ordered their army to fight against their
enemies. For instance in 1919, 6 th KAR battalion of the British in
Tanganyika fought in World War I in Kalito (Ethiopia) and another part
of it fought in Burma and Sudan.
Implemented land alienation for colonial settlers: To establish colonial plantation they enforced the land alienation policy throughout the colonies.
Suppression of African resistance: SomeAfricans
reacted very strongly to colonial rulership so it was the duty of
colonial military to suppress the opposition. This was used as the only
way for colonialists to maintain their administration.
They had a task of maintaining peace and order through maintaining colonial laws and orders: They
also prevented crimes in the colonies. Not only that but they also
protected the colonial properties such as buildings, infrastructure etc.
Tax collection and information: They
were responsible for collecting information and supervising the tax
collected in the colony. The information collected was to be
communicated to the colonial masters.
Supervision of public works was among the functions of the colonial military institutions:Public
works included the construction of infrastructures such as railway,
ports, prisons, hospitals, schools, churches etc. all these had to be
supervised by the colonial military.
Implement colonial conquest: To effect
colonial invasion and domination in Africa during the colonial
penetration and occupation the colonial military had to penetrate to the
interior for the purpose of establishing the colonisation process.
Characteristics of the colonial military
Provided low wages: Exploited
African soldiers through low payment of salaries although they
performed the tough work in the army, while the Whites were paidhighly.
Poor working condition:African
soldiers were subjected to poor social services. They lived in low
standards and small houses with shared bathrooms and toilets while white
soldiers and their officers lived in big well-ventilated, well
furnished houses; other social services such as health and education
were also offered on discriminatory bases.
was restricted from interacting with white soldiers apart from official
meetings. For instance African entertained themselves in their social
halls that were of low standards and had minimum facilities and White
had their clubs where they interacted among themselves
Poor education: Most
colonial forces were more or less illiterate because it was believed
that an uneducated force was better for the colonialists.
Applied force not brains: Most colonial forces used strict command with less reasoning.
Colonial legal institutions
The colonial legal institutions were the colonial organisations that
dealt with legal issues. It had the duty of advising colonial
government, receiving people's claims, educating the society and guiding
on the procedures to be followed, and providing legal aid. It included
the legislative councils of elders, the prisons and the courts.
They adapted the colonial administrative system such as the councils of elders which were common in British colonies.
The legal systems during the colonial period in many African colonies
were led by European judges and magistrates. It sued and sentenced those
who were not affecting the oppressive colonial laws.
The nature of punishment administered in the colonial judicial system
ranged from fines, caning, imprisonment and execution. The colonial
judiciary system was governed by the help of
The Criminal Investigation Department: This department performed the task of investigating all criminal reports.
motorised companies: Those performed the task of suppressing strikes
formed by trade unionists. The motorised companies were established in
The militia: This took charge of collecting taxes and arrested Africans who failed to pay tax or evaded paying taxes.
Duties of the legal institutions
The major duties of the legal institutions were vast. Some of them were
to amend laws, acts and ordinances as they were amended time after time
in order to suit the colonial situation. Legal institutions had to do so
to ensure that Africans performed various colonial activities.
Among the laws and ordinances made was the crown land ordinance of 1915
in Kenya. This offered white settlers the right to own Kenyan highlands
for a 99 years lease. Another instance was that of masters and servants
ordinance of 1924 which was established in Tanganyika.
The handling of various claims of the people was done through councils
of elders and the legislative council (LEGCO) the councils of elders
dealt with African cases while the LEGCO handled both European and
PICTURES SHOWING COLONIAL ARMY
BASIC ASSIGNMENT/ACTIVITY TO DO
Explain the meaning of colonial military and colonial legal institutions.
What were the functions of colonial military and colonial legal institutions?
Explain the features of colonial military.
Describe the duties of the colonial legal institutions.