Monday, November 28, 2022


  e-SBO       Monday, November 28, 2022

The Concept of Nationalism
Explain the concept of nationalism
Nationalism literally refers to the desire ,love , or sprite for ones nation .In Africa the term nationalism has been used to signify the struggle of independence or self determination against foreign domination in case of Europe the term nationalism has been used to signify for national unification in Germany and Italy and to acquire oversea colonies. Nationalism in Africa is divided into two phase according to the period.
  • Nationalism before 1945
  • Nationalism after 1945 (mass nationalism)
The Origin of Nationalism in Africa
Explain the origin of nationalism in Africa
The origin of nationalism in Africa is traced back to the era of colonialism and primary African resistance against colonial rule. The increase of exploitation resulted to nationalistic struggle. Its origin and basis were of two perspectives: These are based on reflection of the ancient and modern based on recent phenomena characterized by structural conditions of modern society.
The Importance of Nationalism in Africa
Explain the importance of nationalism in Africa
The following are the Importance of African Nationalism
  • African nationalism aimed at gaining political sovereignty i.e. self determination byopposing imperial occupation of the European colonialist.
  • To spread political awareness to African against white economic exploitation theimperialist extended excessive oppression and exploitation to the Africans, heavytaxation, land alienation and forced labour.
  • To bring various African ethnic groups to form unity and solidarity to fight theirgrievances and this was to be achieved through formation of political parties.
  • To remove the element of European capitalism and its related evil and adopt new afrocentric views of Marxism.
  • To spread the African culture and fight out foreign culture that had been promotedby the colonialism, like language, dressing, table manners among others.
  • To remove inferior complex among the Africans and to appreciate the effort ofliberating themselves from European domination
Nationalism before 1945
In the first decade of colonial rule most East African communities experienced only spasmodic contacts with the white men. But by the mid of 1920s,the activities of the government officials, missionaries and settlers were beginning impinge or to affect much more direct on the lives of many Africans. Acts like land alienation, forced labour, injustice and taxation now were affecting the Africans more.
The struggle for self determination and resistance against the intruders began in Africa immediately after the inception of colonialism around 1890s.
The African started to resist colonial domination in the early time e.g. Abushiri and Bwana Heri in Tanganyika, Shona and Ndebele in Zimbabwe, as well as Nama and Herero in Namibia. The African resistance was of three kinds;
  • Passive resistance
  • Collaborative resistance
  • Active resistance
However, the period and intensity in which the early African resistance occurred in various societies depended on the intensity of colonial activities and its impact.
For example as early as the 1890s the people of Ghana had already formed the Gold Coast Aborigine‟s Right protection society which was to fight against laws which had been enacted to exploit African land.
Also in 1920 the biggest welfare association in the region was the National Congress of British West Africa in Accra. It was largely formed by the emerging African elites who wanted increased and effective representation in various organs of the state especially in the legislature.
Causes of Nationalism in Africa before 1945
Political grievances
They lost t their independence to the foreigners thus nationalism to regain their lost independence.
African rulers were thrown away and replaced them by foreign rulers who were imposed on the African that they detected and wanted to restate their traditional rulers.
Economic grievances
  1. Forced labour to work on the colonial plantations to provide cheep labor anyAfrican who resisted was punished heavily
  2. Imposition of heavy taxes as to initiate money economy taxes like hut taxpoll tax matiti tax were introduced as to force the indigenous to work in theplantation cattle confiscation as to deny African from engaging in othereconomic activities and resort on supplying cheep labor
  3. Land alienation to keep African away from practicing their substance agricultureand begn to supply cheep labor in plantation.
  4. Loss of control of their trade, like long distance trade and Trans Saharan trade aswell as the introduction of the so called legitimate trade.
  5. Destruction of African agriculture which was self sustaining that based on theneeds of Africa and in place cash crop plantation was introduced.
Social grievances
  1. Colonial injustice and oppression like long working hours, social abuses and separationof men from their families
  2. Heavy punishment like chopping off ribs of the Africans in case of the Congo colonyunder Belgium, corporal punishment in Tanganyika under Curl Peter.
  3. Racism and segregation of Africans, by insulting them by their color and making themthe third grade citizens or their own land.
  4. Destruction of African values and traditions and implanting foreign culture like religion,language, education and culture.

The Meaning of Social and Welfare Associations
Explain the meaning of social and welfare associations
Social and welfare associations are social groups associations formed by Africans to meet the immediate needs of members by protesting colonial exploitation, oppression and humiliations. They played an important role of providing political education to African communities by showing the evil of colonialism and the need to liberate themselves.
The major groups of social and welfare associations
  1. The skilled and unskilled workersThese comprised of elites both skilled and unskilled workers who lived in poor houses and had nosufficient health and education services compared to Asians and Europeans. They demanded better terms of services, equal provision of wages and salaries to workers of the same qualifications regardlessof their race differences.
  2. African tradersThese were petty traders in urban areas who were addressing their grievances including discriminationsas African traders were discriminated while Asian and European traders were favored much by the colonial governments through provision of loans and other facilities.
  3. Peasants and cooperative societies. These were peasants cooperative unions aiming at defending the needs of the farmers since the colonial government confiscated their land and offered it to the white settlers while Africans possess little lander landless and forced them to live in infertile land. Examples of these associations were Kilimanjaro Native Planters Association of Tanganyika and Ukamba Members Associations of Kenya.
The Reason for the Rise of Social and Welfare Associations
Analyse the reason for the rise of social and welfare associations
The influence of ex soldiers from the first and second world wars, these were the Africans who were recruited by colonial governments to fight on their sides abroad these countries like Burma, Sri Lanka and other parts of the world. They created awareness to the Africans about the importance of welfare associations in the process of nationalism struggle.
The role of African elites especially those trained by colonialists for the aim of assisting colonial administration in various fields like clerks, teachers, nurses among others. They mobilized their fellow workers to form social organizations within their working areas demanding good living and working conditions for workers as well as better salaries and wages as well as same benefits regardless their race differences.
The increase of exploitation of human resources and natural resources, the world wars left European countries with economic difficulties as a result they decided to come to Africa to compensate their economic loss by exploiting African resource through land alienation, forced labour, taxation and payment of low wages this situation led the Africans to rise social and welfare associations to protest colonial exploitations.
Awareness of civilized urban dwellers on colonial evils most Africans who settled in urban centers so the need to establish welfare associations especially among the people who originated from the same regions or clans, they later on provided such awareness to the African village dwellers who joined hands by supporting the establishment of social and welfare associations.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Social and Welfare Associations during the Struggle for Independence
Assess the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of social and welfare associations during the struggle for independence
Weaknesses/problems of social and welfare associations
It was based on small group’s organization like tribal or class as a result it was very difficult to for their grievances to be fulfilled by the colonial governments for they could not mobilize most of their countrymen.
Frustration and fear among members due to colonial government harassments to members and leaders of social and welfare associations following this situation the members and leaders of the associations failed to stand firm for the interest of their associations. For example the Harry Thuku of the Kikuyu Central Association in Kenya was softened his stand against the colonial government after being exiled.
Financial problems, most of social and welfare association faced the problem of inadequate funds this was due to the fact that they were depending income from their members’ subscriptions to meet their needs. Yet, their members earned low income and at the same time they had other obligations like tax payments and daily life needs as a result they contributed a small amounts in the association something that resulted to financial problems.
Inadequate knowledge and skills of leaders in managements, many leaders of social and welfare associations had little knowledge and skills of managing offices and leading people this created difficulties in organization and mobilization of members within a given association.
Banning of social and welfare associations by colonial government this was due to the fact that these associations were against colonial governments and administrations that is why colonial governments decided to ban them in order to abolish them. This situation made Africans to experience difficulties in organizing the associations.
Strengths and contributions of social and welfare associations during the struggle for African independence
  • Establishment of infrastructures such as offices came to be used by the nationalist leadersduring the struggle for independence.
  • Preparation of nationalist leaders these associations prepared African nationalist leaders who were members of the associations through providing political awareness that made them to stand firm in struggling for African liberation. For example Jomo Kenyatta was a member of the Kikuyu Central Association who later on organized Kenyans to fight for their liberation.
  • They provided awareness among the Africans on the evils of colonial governments, through these associations many Africans especially the members of the associations awakened on the injustice of colonialism. For example in Kenya the Ukambani experiencing demonstrations due to the increase of awareness.
  • Journal publications, some social and welfare associations published their journals which carried out various political agenda and communicated with their members on different issues of their concern.
  • Generally they organized meetings which came to be a forum for airing their own grievances to the colonial rule. Furthermore, they created a base on which the true nationalism activities stood

Protest can be referred as a reaction against those who mistreat or humiliate others, indicating that their treatment cannot be taken any more. Protest can be divided into two;
  1. Active protest this involves physical reaction such as fighting or striking
  2. Passive protest this involves silent reactions such as boycotts.
The African religious movements prevailed in the early 20th century among African communities. They took form of either indigenous protest movements like Msambwa Religious Movements in Kenya or the form of independent churches that had broken away from white missionaries churches.
African independent churches’ paved the way for African emancipation to occupy high ranks in the church hierarchy; previously Africans were at the bottom in the church as they only ended up being bible school teachers and catechists all high ranks and decision were made by white missionaries, the formation of independent churches made the Africans to accept Christianity as a religion not an aspect of colonial system as they thought to be when it was conducted by white missionaries.
Generally, the breaking away of African from various western missionary churches to independent churches was an expression of a protest against colonial domination in Africa.
The Meaning of Protest and Religious Movements
Explain the meaning of protest and religious movements
Protest refers to a strong reaction against mistreatment and humiliation. Protests can be divided into two categories: Active protest e.g. physical reaction like fighting, and passive protest e.g. boycotts. While African religious movements were movements created by Africans to protest colonial powers.
The Causes of the Rise of Protest and Religious Movements
Analyse the causes of the rise of protest and religious movements
Church segregation, the European churches preached the salvation and equality of human being before God while Africans were segregated, oppressed and not allowed even to lead prayers they were taken as third citizens.
The assistance of missionary to colonizers, the European churches also involved in helping colonizers in land alienation, forced labour, taxation and administration which had no any relation with the teaching of the bible.
Africans realized that the European churches and colonialism were two sides of the same coin that the Christian missionaries were only to pave way for colonization process of Africa as many of them acquired labour farms and exploited African just like the white settlers.
Missionaries advised Africans concerning political and economic problems by breaking their resistance e.g. through preaching biblical doctrines like the humble people are the blessed for them will enter the kingdom of God forgive those who wrong you.
Missionaries intervened in African culture like girl circumcision among the kikuyu people in Kenya who vehemently detested the missionary activities. That prompted them to start independent schools and begun to spread.
The Africans showed disapproval of missionaries’ education system, they considered it inadequate as it only taught African reading, writing and arithmetic (3Rs) this enabled African to occupy low position in colonial administration like clerks and wound dressers in the colonial government’s hospital.
The Africans wanted to counter attack the colonial exploitation and domination independent church campaigned against payment of taxes by African, racial discrimination, unequal provision of social services and forced labour.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Protest and Religious Movements during the Struggle for Independence
Assess the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of protest and religious movements during the struggle for independence
Weaknesses/problems faced by religious movements during the struggle for independence
  • Financial problems the independent churches experienced in adequate funds because ofdepending on the little money rose from the few members of the churches that could notsustain most of their needs. For example the churches needed funds to support a large numberof pupils expelled from mission schools in Kenya during the female circumcision controversy ofthe 1920s and 1930s.
  • Conflicts among church leaders within independent churches there were several churchleadership conflicts emerged among the church founders, since everyone demanded leadershiprecognition in the church.
  • Competition between independent churches and the white missionary churches for followersfollowing this the white missionaries influenced many Africans to be converted into theirchurches by all means including provision of gifts like clothes and shoes for the aim ofpreventing African independent churches from getting followers.
  • Lack of enough trained personnel as most of teachers in independent churches were untrainedsince most of them were ex-missionary school students with little western education andmanagement skills.
Strengths and contributions of protest and religious movements during the struggle for independence
  • Establishment of African independent schools these schools enrolled African children only andthey were taught their culture and evils of colonialism as a result later on they became politicalactivists.
  • Provision of reformism education, by teaching the Africans that the missionaries were mereagents of colonialism and practicing discrimination in the church and its hierarchy followingthese missionaries was not fully evangelical as they preached thus reforms were inevitable.
  • The increase of awareness among the Africans due to various protest including activedemonstrations, boycotts and strikes especially when colonial governments used force to avoidprotest. For example the religious protest in the Nyasaland under Chilembwe when suppressedmade the movements to be popular.
  • The religious movements and churches instructed Africans not to pay tax and not to beinvolved in the imperialist wars because Africans were not beneficiaries of these.

The Meaning of Mass Nationalism
Explain the meaning of mass nationalism
This refers to nationalistic activities that occurred after 1945, after the Second World War it was in this period that African was successful in their struggle at times referred as modern nationalism.
Immediately after World War II Africans gained the momentum to demand for self determination this came as a result for intensive exploitation of African resources after World war two.
Generally mass nationalism is characterized by mass feeling and attitude of demanding independence by using a nationalist struggle in form of unified parties beyond the class, tribe or ethnic background.
Characteristics of mass nationalism
  • Well organized and planned by elites, African leaders those that were educated fromcolonial schools.
  • It was a national wide that it covered the whole nation through opening up manybranches in the whole state both in the rural and urban areas.
  • It was led by the elites i.e. educated leaders who were focused e.g. Nyerere, Kenyatta,Obote and Nkurumah.
  • It was political in origin, i.e. they struggled for political independence of Africa.
  • It was dominated by both dialogue and armed struggle, where dialogue proved a failure.
  • It was motivated by both internal and external factors, unlike those before 1945 whichwere motivated by internal forces.
  • It led to the independence of some nations i.e. it was successful in getting independencefor African nations.
The Reason for the Rise of Mass Nationalism in Africa
Analyse the reason for the rise of mass nationalism in Africa
Factors that gave birth to African nationalism are of two kinds.
  • Internal factors
  • External factors
Internal factors
There were forces that were internally motivated, that generated within African societies that brought about nationalism in Africa. These included the following factors.
Formation of peasant cooperative union, especially in rural areas to defend the interests and welfare of the farmers, where some associations were formed by the colonialists as to speed up the production and the marketing of cash crop as well as sensitizing peasants about cultivation through their associations. But later alone developed nationalistic feelings and turned against the colonialists using their association‟s structures in rural areas.
Intensive exploitation after the Second World War in the colonies the colonizers wanted to revamp their ruined economies, which were heavily damaged by the war; large scale colonization was carried out.
Formation of independent churches, these were churches that were lead by the Africans breaking away from main stream white churches to challenge their misdeeds over the Africans. They addressed not only religious but also social, political and economic grievances of Africans such churches included Joseph Ejayi in west Africa, the Kikuyu native church, the watch tower church movement in Malawi 1906, the African national church in Tanganyika, the people God and religion of Jesus in Kenya and united native church in Cameroon. Such churches openly criticized the colonialists and encouraged their followers to fight them thus the rise of African nationalism
Formation of segregated African schools, after realizing that the missionary and colonial school taught nothing but European based syllabus some African societies begun their own schools, like among the Kikuyu in Kenya Africans were taught African syllabus. This helped in educating Africans and developing the spirit of nationalism.
Rise of elites, who had attained colonial education like Nyerere in Tanganyika, Nkurumah in Ghana, Kamuzu Banda in Malawi and Abafemi Awolowo of Nigeria. This education helped them to get used to the white language, to get exposed to various struggle and liberation of the world. But on top of that some elite came from outside Africa the combination of both helped to the rise of nationalism provision of leadership for nationalistic struggle.
Ghana independence in 1957, it was example to estimate other African nations to begin fight for their freedom so it as possible for them also to attain independence from their colonial power.
The Italy vs. Ethiopia war of 1935-1941, under Mussolini and Haile Selasie and Ras Imra increased the momentum of African nationalism Italy an industrialized nation was heavily and bravery resisted by an African nation Ethiopia this boosted African confidence towards their struggle for independence was defeated.
Formation of social welfare association, this aimed to improve the working conditions of African workers discriminations and colonial abuses to the Africans such associations largely based in urban centers and comprised colonial civil servants like the Kikuyu central association in Kenya that was formed by Harry Thuku the railway territory civil association in Tanganyika, Tanganyika territory civil service association (T.T.C.S.A.)which was formed Martin Kayamba the peoples union in 1908 in Nigeria. Such association exerted more pressure on the colonialists to consider giving African independence which led to African nationalism.
Mass media especially newspapers played a big role in spreading awareness among the population in both rural and urban areas such newspaper included Sauti ya TANU in Tanganyika, the pilot and the comet in Nigeria
Colonial social infrastructures also played a big role in facilitating the spread and the rise of African nationalism that‟s why some historians do say that colonialism sown a seed of its own destruction, infrastructures like railway and roads facilitated the nationalistic activities in rural and urban centers by spreading the message of liberation in all parts of Africa.
Formation of Pan Africanize in 1900by William Sylvester from the new world which later led to the formation of O.A.U. an organization that united all African independent nations to help in fighting for African independence.
External factors
These were factors that motivated nationalism but being generated from outside Africa such forces included:
The returning ex-soldiers, who participated in the war on the side of their colonial masters assisting them as porters and security guards of many camps, this participation brought awareness since these soldiers were exposed to western democracy, freedom and liberation message some veterans like Dedan Kimathi who were later a leader of Mau Mau in Kenya.
Formation of UN which replaced the League of Nation where independent African states were allowed to participate as members it becomes an organization of all nations. African and Asian nations through the UN opposed the colonialists and demanded self determination, unlike during the League of Nations where African colonies became mandatory colonies of European nations.
The India and Pakistan independences, these acted as external pressure for the Africans to emulate both were British colonies that attained their independence in 1948 as one nation which later separated in two nations, following that African quoted such incidences as a negotiate tool to argue for the independence.
The Bandung conference of 17th April 1955, where Asians and Africans nations such as south Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Libya and Egypt met in Indonesia to discuss their problems which include colonialism and economic development, they emphasized solidarity, it was during this conference that non aligned movements NAM was formed in this conference.
Rise of communism in USSR the second world war witnessed the expansion and consolidation of the communist bloc whereby Russian begun to provide material and moral support for anti colonial struggle for Africa e.g. it supported rebel groups in Angola and Namibia to fight colonialists.
Marshal plan, this was initiated by George Marshal the prime minister of USA whereby he began giving loans to the war ruined European nations on condition that they should decolonize in Africa and Asian nations, by granting independence to those nations.
Open door policy of USA, this policy was introduced by USA for the aim of conducting business with independent African states thus it begun requesting colonialists to give independence to the African countries so as to do business with USA
The British labour party, which assumed power in 1945 its policies were against colonialism which they viewed as oppression of humanity and wastage of British tax payers money such anti colonial sentiments in Britain made many nationalistic movement to agitate for their immediate independence.
The rise of USA as a leading capitalist nation, after the world war two US became the chief superior of war materials and the war did not affect her economy negatively made her to became a leading capitalist nation and begun to advocate for decolonization of African nations as a trick to compensate for not colonizing through establishment of neo colonialism to get market for her finished goods area of investment for her international cooperation.
The aftermath of the Second World War to the colonialists who incurred a lot of losses and could not continue with spending to the colonies so they were forced to grant some independence to some African states. But on top of the above some European powers adopted intensive exploitation to revamp their economies which awakened many Africans to resist thus the rise of nationalism in Africa.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Political Parties towards the Road to Independence
Compare the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of political parties towards the road to independence
Weaknesses of political parties in Africa
  • Financial problems this was because members were unable to contribute the money requiredfor various political activities due to poverty.
  • Lack of reliable communication networks that could easy the transmission of information fromone place to another in order to facilitate political activities of spreading political awarenessamong the Africans.
  • Colonial restrictions to political parties, colonial governments acted as obstacles to Africanpolitical parties since they limited political activities and slow down the decolonization processby banning political parties. For example the British colonial government restricted governmentworkers from being members of TANU in Tanganyika. In Ghana Nkwame Nkurumah (CCP) wasimprisoned all of this aimed at suppressing African political parties.
  • Opposition between African political parties as each party basing on their ethnic, regionalism orelitism competing against the other to the extent of conducting campaign against the otherinstead of joining hands in fighting their common enemy. For example in Nigeria and Uganda thecases were commonly practiced.
  • Some political parties were created to meet the interest of a few such as elite for example theUganda National Congress (UNC) was created to meet the interest of other non Baganda againstthe Kabaka Yekka of Buganda in Uganda.
  • Lack of support from other organizations like women, youth and farmers associations during thetime of spreading liberation messages for decolonization process in Africa.
Strengths and contribution of political parties in Africa
  • The use of peaceful means to fight for independence unlike armed struggle which led to loss ofmany African lives and property destructions
  • The rise of awareness among Africans as many Africans through their different groups andassociations became conscious of their grievances by demanding their independence fromcolonial governments through political rallies, propaganda newspapers and organized boycotts.For example CCP of Ghana encouraged Ghanaians to boycott the colonialists.
  • Unifying the Africans to fight against colonial government as their common enemy, they usedyouth and women to unify the masses at the grassroots to fight colonialism. For example CCP ofGhana and TANU in Tanganyika had youths and women groups to support them in fighting theirgoals of bringing independence.
The Problems Experienced during Mass Nationalism
Analyse the problems experienced during mass nationalism
When Africans struggled for the independence, especially during mass nationalism, they encountered many problems such as: Disunity among the Africans, tribalism, financial problems, lack of awareness among Africans as well as strong opposition from colonial rulers.

The Meaning of Decolonization through Constitutional Means
Explain the meaning of decolonization on through constitutional means
Decolonization through constitutional means is the type of liberation which involve intensive negotiation between the colonialists and African nationalists e.g. the political independence of Tanganyika, Ghana, Uganda and Zambia. All applied negotiation or peaceful means to get their independence.
Reasons for the decolonization through constitutional means
Absence of white settlers, in areas with no settlers like in Tanganyika and other parts of Africa they attained their independence through peaceful means; For example Tanganyika contained influential minorities of Europeans and Asians as the number involved was not large enough to bring obstacle in the path of national independence only 23,000 European among whom only few hundred could properly be regarded as settlers and the number of Asians was 87,000.Hence decolonization through constitutional means.
Minimal problems like tribalism and religious differences; that would have brought internal disputes struggle or disunity. This was a sovereignty advantage to some African countries. For it was simple for them to unite the masses for self determination.
The trust ship colony a trust territory colony was subjected to measure of supervision by the United Nations a situation that made it impossible for the colonizers government to entirely pressure exerted by international opinion. For example Tanganyika was not mandatory like Uganda or Kenya it was under the trust ship of UN given to Britain as a result her independence was easily influenced by the United Nations.
The role of political parties, where the political party which took over the power lacked serious opposition from other political parties which would have delayed the independence then the decolonization was through peaceful means. For example Tanganyika TANU was a major political party that had never been banned by the colonial government so it was able to operate freely without any hindrance unlike KANU in Kenya. This was very significant in achieving her goals of independence.
The role of the leader, where there were strong, approachable and democratic leaders with high sprite of patriotism for nation the independence was achieved through constitutional means. For example in Tanganyika the strong leadership of J.K. Nyerere and Oscar Kambona played a big role in achieving independence in Tanganyika by peaceful means.
Absence of heavy investment, in places where colonialists did not invest heavily in infrastructure or agriculture which they might have feared to lose the independence was through peaceful means.
The Conditions which Facilitated Constitutional Struggle for Independence
Assess the conditions which facilitated constitutional struggle for independence
There are some conditions or factors that facilitated the constitutional means of the struggle for independence. These involved mandatory colony, the role of mass media, the role of elites, the nature of colonial Governor, existence of peasant cash crops, the nature of reaction, the role of political parties and political leaders.
The Problems Experienced during the Struggle for Independence through Constitutional Means
Analyse the problems experienced during the struggle for independence through constitutional means
The colonial bureaucracy was a stumbling block, when it came at registrations of political party branches national wide, the registration governing the operation of political parties was amended aimed at debarring political party‟s the activities the government technically put a delayed tactic in registering the branches of political parties, with the same agenda of checking their spread and its influences.
The colonial government first applied simple repression, banning of political party‟s activities disaffected areas and the second tactics which was applied mostly in French colonies was the creation of colonial government sponsored political parties the like United Tanganyika Party (U.T.P) designed to up hold the cause of multi-racialism.
Colonial government sabotage by closing political party‟s branches and banning its activities, this tactic was used by the colonial government to check the influence of political parties
The colonial policy of divide and rule, this wanted to divide the people of Africa on ethnicity lines e.g. the meeting of 1957 governor Twining attempted to drive division between traditional rulers and members of nationalist movement. This was a very big obstacle for political parties to forge unity between the masses.
The opposition from church missionary society, who barred their followers from involving into active politics that would be regarded as disobedient to the church; this affected very many members of political parties who were Christians.
Lack of education for most nationalists, the colonial government prohibited the civil servants from joining active politics and were the only small elite who were educated that would helped the party. Most of the party members were comprised by a big numbers of peasants
Poor transport and communication structures, to assist nationalist leaders in mobilizing the masses from different parts to join the movement of struggle for independence for example some roads were impassable during rainy season.
Lack of political awareness among the masses, as most of the Africans were peasants who were in rural areas and did not know the objectives of the political party and their financial assistance to the party was very minimal.

The Meaning of Armed Struggle
Explain the meaning of armed struggle
The form of liberation that involves the use of guns in the struggle for independence, this was conducted in the situation where peaceful means failed and the imperialist were reluctant to negotiate or to give independence to the Africans. In such situation the Africans picked up arms to fight the imperialists by force as a method to achieve their independence it involves bloodshed use of guerrilla warfare. For example it was applied in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Angola, South Africa, Namibia and Mozambique.
The Causes of Armed Struggle for Independence
Analyse the causes of armed struggle for independence
Armed struggle became dominant after 1945 especially in Zimbabwe, Kenya, Angola and South Africa as compared to other forms of liberation this was due to the following factors that accelerated to the application of armed struggle.
Military assistance from USSR, after 1945 USSR consolidated her strength to the zenith it was anti colonialism and sympathizers to African anti colonial struggles. It was ready to provide military support and moral support to liberate the Africans from colonialism thus military struggle.
Manchester conference, in this conference the major agenda was to liberate Africans from colonialism by all means peaceful or force. This situation gave Africans courage to use force through armed struggle especially in those colonies where the colonialists were reluctant to grant independence.
The role played by ex soldiers, the war veterans of the Second World War came back with awareness and military skills which they had acquired during the war, their skills encouraged many nationalist to apply force to overthrow the colonialists who were not ready to grant independence to Africans.
The support from UN under USA and USSR, these nations ere anti colonialism as a result they provided support to African nationalist struggle to use all means to get rid from colonialism.
Failures of other methods of liberation, other methods like peaceful means and constitution means failed hence the armed struggle became the last method for getting independence from colonialists.
The aftermath of India and Pakistan independence, the independence of Asian countries especially India and Pakistan was a big challenge for the Africans to emulate as a result they used all means of liberation to attain their independence.
The role of pan Africans, this played a big role especially after shifting her headquarters from the new world to Africa. It ensured liberation of African nations by all means.
The unwillingness of the colonial power to grant independence, some colonial powers were unwilling to grant independence for example the Portugal and British were not willing to grant independence to their colonies hence the Africans decided to use armed struggle to liberate themselves.
Intensive exploitation; after the Second World War the colonialists increased exploitation to the Africans resources to revamp their ruined economies. This situation awakened the Africans against the colonialists as a result they used all means to liberate themselves
The influence of front line states, these provided military and manpower support to the anti colonial struggle in Africa e.g. Tanganyika during the struggle in south Africa and Namibia or Mozambique.
Emergence of cold war after 1945, this was the struggle between USA and USSR, where by every bloc wanted to win more countries in Africa so as to spread their political ideologies of socialism or capitalism, this witnessed the giving up weapons to fight the colonialists.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Armed Struggle towards the Road to Independence in Africa
Analyse the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of armed struggle towards the road to independence in Africa
Strengths and contribution of armed struggle to the African independence
  • It helped in attainment of African independence
  • It removed colonial regime in African countries
  • It removed colonial settlers from the African land
  • It restored African alienated land
  • It restored African dignity
  • It ended colonial exploitation of African resources
  • It led to the strong military in Africa
  • It provided strong leaders
Weakness of armed struggle to the African independence
  • Death of people many people were killed during the struggle as they were using arms
  • Separation of families
  • Destruction of properties
  • Lack of strong military
  • Lack of military equipments
  • Lack of funds
  • Fear and insecurity among the nationalists
  • Disunity among the Africans

The Meaning of Revolution
Explain the meaning of revolution
This was type of revolution which involved complete overthrow of the existing political system this existed in colonies where independence was given to the minority at the expense of the majority the case in point is Zanzibar where minority Arabs were granted independence by the British which prompted the majority blacks to make a revolution in 1964 and replaced with another new political system that is supported by the masses. It took place even in Egypt and Libya. Liberation by revolution is always sudden and involves bloodshed.
The Causes of Decolonization through Revolution
Analyse the causes of decolonization through revolution
Economic marginalization for African majority, Africans were mainly squatters who made a living by selling their labour to the landlords and subjected to extreme exploitation, Africans had no access to the major means of production.
Economic inequalities, in case of the Arabs owned land, the Indians controlled finance, the Europeans controlled trade and the Africans owned nothing. Therefore such situation made a revolution necessary to occur.
Deprivation of black Africans to education, despite the government‟s role to provide suitable elementary education for all people, the Africans continued to suffer from inequality of education system. They were not catered like the other races which made them unsatisfied with the regime thus the revolution
Segregation in the other social services, Africans was also segregated in health services, housing and water supply. Even in civil services Africans hold lower ranks unlike the Arabs and the Indians.
Act of intimidation, after unexpectedly loosing the 1957 election on Z.N.P it decided to employ various act of intimidation to force Africans to join them i.e. the 1958 strikes at the docks led to mass uprising it initiated a strong campaign against them.
Segregation in the social association, as the wind struggle for political independence which was in full in the continental Africans swept the island Zanzibar in the mid 1950. The social association underwent complex transformation into political parties. Africans were opposed politically by the ruling class.
The emergence of John Okello from northern Uganda who settled in Zanzibar in 1952 and worked periodically as painter he was an official of ASP of Pemba island he joined a revolutionary army in 1961 he played a big role in overthrowing the Arab regime.
Poor working conditions and low wages of Africans that could not make them to meet their basic needs of life and despite that were heavily taxed by the Arab government.
Voting restrictions, many Africans were barred from voting, had to read and write Kiswahili, Arabic or English a voter had to be a Zanzibar resident and lived in Zanzibar for at least one year, must be above 25 years old, a voter must be a government employee for at least five years. Such qualifications made many Africans in Zanzibar not to vote hence the revolution was necessary.
Generally the revolution was also caused by the desire of Arab rulers and British colonialists to make Zanzibar an Arab state in 1962 which the majorities Africans were not ready to allow Arab state to raise on their own African soil thus the revolution was inevitable.
The Strengths, Weaknesses and Contribution of Revolution towards the Road to Independence
Assess the strengths, weaknesses and contribution of revolution towards the road to independence
Weaknesses of decolonization through revolution
  • Loss of lives during revolution process some people loose lives this is due to the use ofdangerous weapons during the struggle that resulted to bloodshed.
  • Destruction of properties, such as infrastructures like offices and houses.
  • Fear and insecurity
  • Low level of consciousness and political awareness
  • Lack of clear political structures for movement organization.
  • Lack of patriotism
Strengths and contributions of decolonization through revolution
  • It removed the colonial regime from power by force
  • It managed to adjust the social and economic inequalities in African country
  • It manage to uphold the African dignity
  • It managed to bring African independence
  • It restored the African rights as human being
  • It promoted unity and solidarity among the Africans
The problems Experienced during the Struggle for Independence through Revolution
Analyse the problems experienced during the struggle for independence through revolution
Problems experienced during the struggle for independence through revolution means are
  • Unwillingness of the colonial power to grant independence, some European nations camein Africa to stay forever and regarded their African colonies as oversea provinces, thusthey were very reluctant to grant independence hence decolonization through revolution.
  • Fear and insecurity among the Africans, during the struggle for liberation by revolutionmeans most of the Africans did not engaged in revolution process as they fearedpunishments from colonial government.
  • Lack of political structures to mobilize the people to the common struggles forindependence. For example in rural areas most political parties lacked branches whichwould have been used as centers to create awareness and mobilization of the masses mostas most of the nationalistic activities centered in urban areas.
  • Colonial state apparatus were very oppressive and coercive to the nationalisticmovements in many nations. These included colonial army, police and prison which wereput in place to facilitate colonial production.
  • Death, some African nationalists died in the struggle for independence through revolutionmeans this was due to the fact that the revolution always is sudden and blood shade.
  • Financial problems, the nationalists‟ experienced lacked clear source of funds to meettheir expenditure as most of Africans were poor.
  • Low level political awareness, many masses in Africa was not educated and lackedpolitical awareness about the essence of their independence. This was the problem sincemost of the indigenous did not know the significance of the struggle.


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