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HISTORY FORM FOUR TOPIC 4:AFRICA IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS


This topic is largely concern with the relationship and cooperation between African nations among themselves and cooperation between African and the outside world. We shall concentrate much on regional integration between African nations and also relationship with international organizations by examining the objectives, achievements, impacts and challenges. In our sub topics will include the following

  • The African Unity (AU)
  • The East African Community (EAC)
  • The Southern African Development Community (SADC)
  • The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
  • The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
  • The Common Wealth Nation
Continental cooperation was facilitated by the social, political and economic exploitation imposed on Africans. Through these the African people realized the need for cooperation and the consciousness that they share a common destiny. So they decided to cooperate with the view to overcome their terrible situation. Hence they started by establishing Pan African Unity in the Diaspora and the ultimate emergence of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) as well as African Unity (AU) and various regional groupings have emerged in the continent.
The Objectives of Establishing Continental Co-operation
Analyse the objectives of establishing continental co-operation
Objectives of establishing continental cooperation
  • To preserve political independence and freedom
  • To preserve African culture from destruction
  • To protect African dignity
  • Unifying Africans in the struggle against political oppression
  • To challenge the ideology of European supremacy which undermines African political independence, economic stability and cultural civilization
  • To fight against economic exploitation including land alienation, poor wages and forcedlabour.
Problems resulting from the establishment of continental cooperation and their impacts on Africa
  • Interference by external powers in the affairs of the African continent, the notoriouspowers like USA, Britain, France and former Soviet Union provides support in form offinances and armaments to different African states and by so doing divided African statesby persuading them to take side during disputes involving these major power.
  • Disputes involving different member states especially over boundaries greatly underminethe continental unity. In fact the member states engaged in war over boarder disputes,some of these wars include Ghana and Togo, Algeria and Morocco, Ethiopia andSomalia/Eritrea as well a Cameroon and Nigeria.
  • Personality differences between African leaders for example personality differenceexperienced between president Museveni of Uganda and president Bashir of Sudan in1980s and 1990s and between Idd Amin of Uganda and President J.K. Nyerere ofTanzania in the 1970s.
  • Dependency on former colonial masters, several times African countries ask support fromtheir former colonial masters especially in the face of political threat from neighboringAfrican states rather than seeking the continental body support hence existence of Britainand French military bases in different African countries up to date.
  • Persuading national interests at the expense of the continental interests and therebyundermined the continental spirit promoted by the organization.
  • Ideological differences
  • Violation of human rights by the leaders for example member countries have continuedto support president Omar al-Bashir of Sudan who has already been indicated for abusefor human rights in Darfur.
  • Lack of common position toward issues further waters down some of the decisions andopinions of the organization.
  • Unable to meet organization objectives in the absence of external support due to relyingon financial support from more economically advanced nations and the United Nations,in order to fund some of the program.
  • Terrorism, for example in 2010 Uganda faced bomb attack which killed over 70 people.This was carried out to punish Uganda for sending AU troops to serve in Somalia.
The Achievements and Problems Resulting from the Establishment of Continental Co-Operation and their Impact on Africa
Explain the achievements and problems resulting from the establishment of continental co-operation and their impact on Africa
Problems resulting from the establishment of continental cooperation and their impacts on Africa
  • Interference by external powers in the affairs of the African continent, the notoriouspowers like USA, Britain, France and former Soviet Union provides support in form offinances and armaments to different African states and by so doing divided African statesby persuading them to take side during disputes involving these major power.
  • Disputes involving different member states especially over boundaries greatly underminethe continental unity. In fact the member states engaged in war over boarder disputes,some of these wars include Ghana and Togo, Algeria and Morocco, Ethiopia andSomalia/Eritrea as well a Cameroon and Nigeria.
  • Personality differences between African leaders for example personality differenceexperienced between president Museveni of Uganda and president Bashir of Sudan in1980s and 1990s and between Idd Amin of Uganda and President J.K. Nyerere ofTanzania in the 1970s.
  • Dependency on former colonial masters, several times African countries ask support fromtheir former colonial masters especially in the face of political threat from neighboringAfrican states rather than seeking the continental body support hence existence of Britainand French military bases in different African countries up to date.
  • Persuading national interests at the expense of the continental interests and therebyundermined the continental spirit promoted by the organization.
  • Ideological differences
  • Violation of human rights by the leaders for example member countries have continuedto support president Omar al-Bashir of Sudan who has already been indicated for abusefor human rights in Darfur.
  • Lack of common position toward issues further waters down some of the decisions andopinions of the organization.
  • Unable to meet organization objectives in the absence of external support due to relyingon financial support from more economically advanced nations and the United Nations,in order to fund some of the program.
  • Terrorism, for example in 2010 Uganda faced bomb attack which killed over 70 people.This was carried out to punish Uganda for sending AU troops to serve in Somalia.
Achievement resulting from the establishment of continental cooperation on Africa
  • Tackling disputes experienced in the African continent for example post-electionviolence in Kenya in 2007, the AU sent a group of eminent to assist in tackling the crisis,not only that but also during the post election violence in Zimbabwe the AU helped tomediate in the crisis between Morgan Tsvangirai and Robert Mugabe.
  • Supporting regional cooperation including the formation of EAC, SADC and ECOWAS
  • Enhancing democracy and good management of economies
  • Interfering with countries facing threats of conflicts or war.
  • Provision of an important forum where independent African states could sit and discussthe issues facing their continent.
  • Supporting the national liberation movements in Africa against colonialism, theassistance was provided in form of shelter, funds, weapon, training facilities andexpertise as well as logistics. For example the OAU liberation committee which wasbased in Dar es salaam, Tanzania assisted liberation movements all over the continent toeradicate colonialism.
  • Promotion of economic, social and technical advancement in the continent. Through theAfrican Development Bank (ADB), member states have benefited from financialassistance which has facilitated the expansion of infrastructural development in thecontinent.
  • Promotion of communication in the continent by developing postal, telecommunications,radio and television networks in Africa.
  • Promotion of social and cultural heritage in the continent through All Africa Games thatwere held every four years, peoples from across the continent interacted throughparticipation in different sports such as soccer, athletics and other sporting activities.

The need for regional cooperation in Africa arose from the need to tackle political, social, and economic needs of the people. Leaders from different regions realized the need to work together in order to overcome developmental challenges facing individual countries as a group rather than as individual countries. This regional approach was found more beneficial given that the people in one region are likely to work more closely together due to geographical, historical and cultural advantages. Among the regional groupings existing in Africa include COMESA, SADC, ECOWAS and EAC.
The Organization of African Unity (OAU)
The organization of African unity was found on 25 may 1963in Addis Ababa Ethiopia by thirty two heads of the independent African states the first chairman was Emperor Haile Sellasie of Ethiopia
This was inspired by pan Africans sentiment of bringing all people of African origin both in the Diaspora and Africa under a single organization to fight and protect their rights.
Nkurumah one of the pioneers of african union and the founding father of Ghana was greatly influenced by his education in USA he believed that the only way to achieve complete economic as well as political freedom from European domination was to create a powerful new „united states of Africa‟ then though continental wide cooperation.
Africa would real take place on the world economic and political stage on terms of equality. In unity Nkurumah was saw strength but in practical terms his dream proved illusory.
In the beginning of the second millennium OAU faced a lot of challenges and the need to for reform to cope with the new trend of global economic cooperation in different region of the world as demonstrated by the success of European union the idea of forming the strong organization which would accommodate these new challenges were pioneered by Muammar the former leader of Libya, during the OAU summit at the town of Sirte Libya on 9th September 1999, where african head of state made the „Sirte declaration‟ and called for the establishment of an african union
In the following year in Lome Togo 2000 the African head of states adopted the constitutive act of the union. And then in Lusaka Zambia summit 2001 the final go ahead to the establishment of AU and finally in 2002 in Durban South Africa AU was officially born replacing OAU
The African union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision making is assembly of the African union, made up of the all heads of state or government of member states of the AU
The assembly is chaired by Yayi Boni, president of Benin elected at the 18th ordinary meeting of the assembly on January 2012. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. Its president is Idriss Ndele Moussa.
PICTURE SHOWING THE NEW HEADQUATERS OF AFRICAN UNION
THE STRUCTURE ORGANIZATION OF AU
Objectives of OAU
To forge unity and solidarity, the primary aim of OAU was to promote African unity and solidarity as the only way forward to achieve complete economic as well as political freedom from other countries of the world, because unity and solidarity would make Africa as super power among other countries.
To coordinate and intensify the cooperation and the efforts of Africa states to achieve a better living of people and also to help the speeding up of the decolonization in the rest of Africa
To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states, one of the OAU principle states the acceptance of the principle of non interference in internal affairs of member state.
To eradicate all forms of colonialism in Africa and acts of slavery in the entire continent of Africa by promoting freedom and human rights to be given first priority.
To promote international cooperation in accordance of the United Nations organization and the universal declaration of human rights
To promote peace security and stability in region
To promote democratic principles and institutions particularly good governance
To promote human and people‟s rights in accordance with African human and people‟s right and other relevant human rights instruments.
To establish the necessary conditions this would enable Africans play its rightful role not only in the local economy but also internationally.
To promote sustainable development at economic, social and cultural levels towards the integration of African economies
To coordinate and policies between the existing and future regional economic communities for attainment of the ultimate objectives of the union
To collaborate in international partner, towards the eradication of preventable diseases and promotion of good healthy in the continent
Principles of OAU
  • The existence of sovereign equality of all members
  • Non interference in the internal affairs of the member states.
  • Respect for the sovereignty and the inalienable right to independent of all member states.
  • Peaceful settlement of disputes by negotiation, mediation and conciliation or arbitration.
  • The affirmation of the policy of non alignment
  • Unreserved condemnation of political assassination as well as of subversive activitiesagainst any member state
Achievement of OAU
It achieved to unite the diverse countries of Africa; this has been attained despite discrepancies in political ideology, levels of economic development, language, colonial experiences and vast geographical differences.
There was of course disagreement between states and groups of states but its main aim was unity and OAU survived its first three decades with no permanent spirit
It has been achieved in providing a forum for discussing common problems of African states and offering solutions like discrimination or apartheid, diseases and civil wars among others. That to a big extent has been dealt with.
The regular meeting of ministers and heads of state have helped to generate greater awareness of other countries problems.
OAU has also achieved in liberation of Africa from colonialism e.g. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia, through the provision of moral and material support to the nationalistic movements in various nations.
The African Development Bank that grew out of the OAU in 1967 became an invaluable tool for mobilizing world finance for Africa development projects.
The idea of coordinating and mobilizing international capital for the benefit of Africa was of particular value during the 1970‟s and early 1980‟s.
Provision of jobs and education to many African refugees, who came as a result of internal conflicts in various African nations.
The organization has taken measures to improve agriculture, industry, transport, and communication trade and education cooperation in various countries.
The meeting of heads of states each year to discuss problems and achievement of continent is one of the achievements.
Many conflicts have been solved by the organization in the continent e.g. the war between Tanzania and Uganda 1978, Mali and Burkina Faso 1985 as well as Kenya and Somalia in 1970.
OAU has encouraged regional integration among is member states such as ECOWAS 1975, SADC 1980, COMESA 1993 has its roots from OAU.
OAU has achieved in acting as chief mediator between various African states to avoid the occurrence of bloodshed e.g. between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
PICTURE SHOWING AFRICAN UNION PARLIAMENT
Problems faced Organization of African Union
A member states decide individually and voluntarily to be the member of the organization and it could withdraw its membership at any time that it feels to do so, this weakens the strength of the organization e.g Morocco is not a member.
No legal sanction to enforce another big problem that faced OAU was that it was no legal sanction to enforce its resolution.
Member state could decide to refuse or ignore to implement the organization decisions, that is why it was always been blamed for being little more than „a talking shop‟ with no serious implementation of her resolutions.
Lack of adequate funds it largely based on the annual contribution of members states most of the member states delayed to pay or defaulted to pay their contributions, this made the organization to fail to run its activities.
Unequal development caused by poverty, illiteracy and unequal distribution of resources.
There are many refugees in Africa which is the result of civil wars in many areas of the continent such as Burundi, DRC Sudan and Somalia.
The continent is still poor depending on debts and loans from World Bank and I.M.F with difficulty conditionality to fulfill.
Differences in language and religion, some societies are proud of their mother tongue other countries are using English, others Arabic, and French every state or tribe wanted to use the language of her interests.
There is tension between fundamentalists Muslims who want to apply sharia law while Christians wants western system of democracy.
African countries are affected by natural disasters such as drought, floods, AIDS and earthquake. These affect the welfare of the people.
Difference in ideology of the member states, head of states are unable to come together to discuss their problems
Lack of a single currency to be used by all member states since it is not decided on to be used; this hinders trade activities in the continent.
Weak economic base of many of the member states most of the member states had got their independence from European imperialist nations, all are based on production on production of primary goods of agriculture products and minerals that fetched little prices,
Terrorism continues to plague the member states for example Uganda in 2010 over 70 people were killed in a bomb attack. This is a great challenge to the continental cooperation especially to the AU as the attack was carried out to push Uganda for sending AU troops to serve in Somalia.
Political instability is still prevailing in some African countries for example in 2007 eminent persons from the AU had to come and assist Kenya to solve her electoral disputes after they turned bloody.
East African Community (E.A.C)
PICTURE SHOWING EAST AFRICAN LOGO AND FLAG
The East African Community (EAC) is an intergovernmental organization comprising five countries in East African states, Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The current EAC‟s chairman is Pierre Nkurunzinza, the president of the republic of Burundi.
The organization was originally found on June 1967, collapsed in 1977, and was officially revived on July 7, 2000; Burundi and Rwanda joined the EAC on 6th July 2009.
East African Federation is also the second most populous nation in Africa (after Nigeria) and eleventh in the world. The population density would be 70 people the GDP (PPP) by IMF estimate would be $ 131,772,000 USD and be the fourth largest in Africa and 55th in the world. The GDP per capital would be $1036 USD, the vernacular language would be Swahili and the official one would be English. The proposed capital is the Tanzanian city of Arusha which is close to the Kenyan border, Arusha is the current headquarters of the East African Community, it was founded on June 1967, and the government of Tanganyika, Kenya and Uganda signed a treaty in Kampala Uganda.
Aims of East African Community
  • To promote free trade in goods and services produced among the members.
  • To provide common services such as railways, harbors, posts and telecommunication.
  • To provide wider and more secure market for industrial and agricultural goods.
  • To allow free movement of people in the region for trade recreation and other socialactivities.
  • To achieve technological innovation and advancement
  • To conduct research activities in agriculture, population, medicine and mining for itsdevelopment
  • It aims at solving regional problems jointly by the heads of the member states.
Challenges to the federation of EAC / why the EAC is delaying to form political union
The issue of free movement of labour, may be perceived as highly desirable in Uganda and Kenya, and have important developmental benefits in Tanzania however in Tanzania there is widespread resistance to the idea of ceding land rights to foreigners, including citizens of Kenya and Uganda, Tanzania has more land than all other EAC nations combined, and Tanzanians fear land grabs by the current residence of the other EAC member nations.
Land scarcity is a recurring issue in east Africa, particularly in Kenya, where clashes on the Kenyan side of Mount Elgon in 2007 left more than 150 dead and forced at least 60,000 away from their home, this proves to be a big challenge to the federation of East African community
Changing on power/power greediness, there is a political challenge to the confederation, its political differences between the states. Museven‟s success in obtaining his third term amendment and his unwillingness to relinquish power to others raised doubts in the other countries.
The single party dominance in the Tanzanian and Ugandan parliaments is an attractive to Kenyans, while Kenya‟s ethic politics is not apparent in Tanzania, Rwanda has a distinctive political culture with a political elites committed to build a developmental state, partly in order to safeguard the Tutsi group against a return to ethnic violence.
The question of Zanzibar, apart from the above the confederation has got serious challenge about the question of Zanzibar in Tanzania the question still stands whether Zanzibar is a state or not, it‟s disturbing the member states in finding the solution.
Involvement in other regional integration, other problems involve states being reluctant to relinquish involvement in other regional groups e.g. Tanzania‟s withdraw from COMESA but staying within SADC bloc, such move make her to remain with double standards and weaken the power of the confederation.
Tanzanians are also concerned because creating a common market means removing tariffs from all import which may turn the nation to become a dumping place for goods from the federal states that may perturb the development of her domestic industries.
MAP SHOWING EAST AFRICA COUNTRIES
Why East African Community collapsed in 1977
In 1977 the East African Community collapsed after ten years. Causes for the collapse included
  • Demands by Kenya for more seats than Uganda and Tanzania in decision makingorgans.
  • Disagreement with Ugandan dictator Idd Amin and disparate economic system ofsocialism in Tanzania and capitalism system in Kenya.
  • Unequal distribution of social services, the problem of the distribution of differentservices, the distribution was more beneficial to Kenya than Uganda and Tanzania.
  • Border conflicts e.g. between Tanzania and Uganda during Idd Amin
  • The ideological disparity between the three countries, Tanzania self reliance andsocialism, Kenya capitalist ideology and Uganda fascism during Idd Amin
  • The organization had its roots from colonial period nothing changed fundamentally thatBritain went on benefiting through Kenya.
  • The East African Bank failed a balance development of industries in the three countriesKenya benefited more than Tanzania and Uganda in income tax and custom duties.
  • Currency differences the government restricted free transfer and exchange of currency.This discourages interstate transaction in goods.
  • Failure of the member country to contribute the agreed fees.
  • The problem of the distribution of different services, the distribution was morebeneficial to Kenya than Uganda and Tanzania.
Following this the three member state lost over sixty years of cooperation and the benefits of economies of scale. However, some Kenyan government officials celebrated the collapse with champagne each of the former member state had to embark, at great expense and lower efficiency, up on establishment of services and industries that had previously been provided at the community level.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC)
It was formed as the replacement of Southern African Development Coordination Conferences (SADCC) formed in 1980. It was in 1993 when it was changed to SADC this is an association of eleven countries such as Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.
Objective of SADC
  • To help member states to have a genuine and equitable regional integration.
  • To mobilize the regional resources for their benefits.
  • To foster international cooperation.
  • To enhance the development of industries, trade, mining, agriculture and energyresources.
  • To improve transport and communication links
  • To improve internal market.
Problems faced SADC
  • Weak financial base, members rely on foreign aid and loan
  • Members produce similar agricultural goods such as coffee, sisal and tobacco whichcompete for market.
  • All members depend on agricultural rather than industries, when the prices of agriculturalcommodities fluctuates which leads to low earnings.
  • Lack of qualified and skilled man power to run the organization, they depend on foreignexperts.
  • Unequal distribution of the benefits of the associations discourages other states.
  • Every member tries to cater her national interests rather than those of SADC
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
Before 1993 COMESA was known as preferential trade area for eastern and southern Africa P.T.A. the heads of member states met at Kampala Uganda on 6th November 1993 and signed a treaty which created COMESA. A member of COMESA includes Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Botswana, Swaziland, Mauritius, Comoro, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia and South Africa.
Objective of COMESA
  • Promoting and facilitating cooperation among member countries in trade, transport and communication.
  • Harmonizing and coordinating development strategies, policies and plans within the region.
  • It encourages cooperation in monetary and financial affairs in order to facilitate sub region integration.
  • It aimed at establishing joint industries and agricultural institution to raise the production capacity.
  • It aims at reducing and eventually eliminating tariffs among members in order to facilitate trade.
  • It encourages economic independence of a region by establishing strong economic base.
Achievements of COMESA
Member states have become more cooperative in the field of trade, industry and agriculture. The organization has also established the bank known as the trade and development bank situated in Bujumbura Burundi which finances trade and development projects
Problems facing COMESA
  • Different levels of development of members of states.
  • Poor transport shipping facilities and communication links
  • Existence of too many currencies in the region,
  • Weak economic base of member states e.g. dependency economies.
  • Civil wars, natural calamities and neo colonialism
The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
The Economic Community of West Africa was formed on 28th may 1975, member states includes Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Senegal, Benin, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Sierra Leon, Liberia, Guinea Bissau, Togo, Cameroon, Cape Verde and Nigeria.
Aims of ECOWAS
  • ECOWAS aimed at removing barriers and allowing free movement of people servicesand capital for the development of the member states.
  • It aims at developing industries, agriculture and mining by using good and applicablepolicies.
Achievement of ECOWAS
  • The organization has managed to set energy resource development fund for oil mining industry in the region.
  • There have been agriculture and communication development of the whole part of the region this has been through special fund to develop the projects and through joint ventures between members.
Problems facing ECOWAS
  • Each member wants to benefit more than the other members of the community accordingto their interests.
  • Political instability affects member states, there have been civil wars and coup d‟├ętat inthe region, e.g. Nigeria, Sierra Leon, Liberia and Ivory Coast.
  • Poor communication network system in many parts of the region hinders organizationactivities to all places.
  • Language differences, other members are using English while others French this led tocommunication barrier between the members.
  • Lack of single currency creates the problem of the rate of exchange between the memberstates.
  • The problem of members to have a membership in more than one organization and all theorganization have demands in terms of contribution i.e. it‟s difficult to contributemembership to all the organization due to poverty
Common Wealth of Nations
The common wealth of nations normally referred to as the common wealth and formerly intergovernmental organization of 54 independent member states. All members except Mozambique and Rwanda were part of the British Empire, out of which the commonwealth developed.
The common wealth is an intergovernmental organization in which countries with diverse social, economic, and political backgrounds are regarded as equal in status, not a political union. Activities of the common wealth are carried put through the permanent commonwealth secretariat, headed by the secretary-general and biennial meetings of commonwealth heads of government. The symbol of their free association is the head of the commonwealth, which is ceremonial position currently held by Queen Elizabeth II.
The member states cooperate between a framework of common values and goals as it outlined in the Singapore declaration. This includes the promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, and rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace.
Objectives of commonwealth
The commonwealth‟s objectives were first outlined in the 1971 Singapore declaration which committed to the commonwealth to the institution to the following objectives.
  • Maintain world peace and stability
  • Promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty.
  • The pursuit of equality and opposition to racism.
  • The fight against poverty, ignorance and diseases.
  • To promote free trade to all member nations. To these was added opposition todiscrimination on the basis of gender by the Lusaka declaration of 1979.
  • To maintain environmental sustainability by the LangKawi declaration of 1989
These objectives were reinforced by the Harare declaration in 1991 Generally, the commonwealth‟s highest priority aims are on the promotion of democracy and development, as outlined in the 2003. Also rock declaration which built on those in Singapore and Harare and clarified their terms of reference, stating we are committed to democracy, good governance, human rights, gender equality as well as more equitable sharing of the benefits of globalization.
The Objectives of the Different Regional Groupings in Africa
Analyse the objectives of the different regional groupings in Africa
Objective of different regional groupings in Africa
  • To attain sustainable growth and development of member states
  • To promote social, economic and political development
  • To cooperate in the promotion of peace, security and stability among member states
  • To promote good relations between member states
  • To promote trade and industrial developments
  • To promote cultural cooperation
  • To facilitate movement of people and goods in the region
  • To promote environmental protection and utilization of resources
Problems resulting from the establishment of regional groupings on Africa
  • Political instability example Angola, Kenya, Uganda, Siera Leone, Liberia andDemocratic Republic of Congo
  • Differences in political ideologies example Mozambique, Angola and Tanzaniapursued socialism while other member states pursued capitalism
  • Language barrier example Mozambique and Angola is Portuguese speaking,Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda are Kiswahili speaking, Rwanda and Burundi areFrench speaking and the other member states use English as the main medium ofcommunication.
  • Poor interstate communication
  • Differences in economy
  • Unequal gain by member states
  • Different currency
  • Foreign interference
  • Failure to remit contribution required by the regional organizations
  • Boarder quarrels between member states example Nigeria and Cameroon, Ethiopiaand Eritrea as well as Tanzania and Malawi/Uganda.
  • Personality differences between political leaders of member states
  • Civil wars among member states example Northern and Southern Sudan, DemocraticRepublic of Congo.
The Achievements and Problems Resulting from the Establishment of Regional Grouping and their Impact on Africa
Critically analyse the achievements and problems resulting from the establishment of regional grouping and their impact on Africa
Achievements resulting from the establishment of regional groupings on Africa
  • Promotes culture of democratic governance, accountability and respect for human rights
  • Expansion of employment opportunity among the member states
  • Trade liberalization among the member states
  • Improvement of transport and communications in order to ease movement of services,people and goods in the region.
  • Provision of market for member states‟ commodities.
  • Enhancing and standardizing the quality of education in the region.
  • Promotion of democracy and the rule of law in the region
  • Boosting of economic cooperation among member states by formulating economic,financial and monetary policies for the organization.
  • Sharing of social services such as water resources and electricity among the memberstates
  • Enhancing peace and security in the region by establishing regional multinational forcelike the Economic Community Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) in the Western part ofAfrica.
Problems/challenges resulting from Africa’s participation in International Affairs
  • Failure to intervene quickly in Africa to avoid catastrophes
  • They depend on contributions of member states. Unfortunately a majority of its membersin Africa are poor countries, who are unable to remit their contributions.
  • Ideological differences between different nations globally especially among the majorpowers. Following this African countries fall victim depending on which side theysupport in the global tensions even today.
  • The use of veto powers by the permanent members of the Security Council. Africancountries added their voice to demand that some African states also acquire this vetopower in order to level the status of international relations.
BASIC ASSIGNMENT/ ACTIVITY TO DO
  1. Why has the dream of united Africa not been achieved up to now?
  2. What are the major achievements and problems of the organization of Africa unity sinceits formation?
  3. What are the problems in the process of establishing regional economic integration inAfrica?
  4. Show success and shortcoming of United Nations Organization?
  5. Analyze the objectives and problems of SADC
  6. What are the achievements and problem of ECOWAS?
  7. What are the problems and achievement facing African Union?
  8. Show how african countries have benefited from being members of the UN
  9. Discuss the benefits Tanzania get from Commonwealth Community
  10. With examples show challenges that likely to face the new African Union
  11. What are the problems and achievements of African countries to participate ininternational affairs


The independent African states had been participating in international affairs through joining International Organizations. These international organizations exist into two types namely;
  • International Governmental Organizations (IGOs)
These are organizations made up of two or more sovereign states for example The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and THE World Health Organization
  • International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs)
These are organizations made up of individuals or private groups for example International Red Cross, Amnesty International and Transparency International.
The Objectives of Africa's Participation in International Affairs
Explain the objectives of Africa's participation in international affairs
Objectives of participating in international affairs
  • To demonstrate African sovereignty by participating in the global affairs
  • To receive more international attention by participating in the General Assembly of United Nations
  • To put African continent in a strategic situation in the struggle between the Easternand the Western bloc during the cold war by participating in the Non-AlignmentMovement for the aim of being able to receive support from both sides.
  • To give African continent forum through which they could discuss their continentalaffairs by participating in the Organization of African Unity
  • To enhance Africa‟s development in collaboration with their English speaking states that are more developed. By participating in the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • To coordinate cooperation of the Francophone and their former colonial masters by participating in the French Community.
  • To show solidarity with other states of the world especially during emergencies by participating in the affairs of International Non-Governmental Organizations.
The Achievements and Problems Resulting from Africa's Participation in International Affairs
Critically assess the achievements and problems resulting from Africa's participation in international affairs
Achievements of African to participate in the International Affairs (UN)
  • Peaceful resolution of conflicts through UN by using peacekeepers, observer missions,special envoys and mediators to intervene in volatile areas. For example thepeacekeeping operation have taken place in Africa include the Democratic Republic ofCongo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Somalia.
  • Efforts towards disarmament done by UN over the years it has spearheaded the crusadetowards reducing dangerous arms in the world especially nuclear weapons for exampleseveral treaties have been signed with the aim of cutting down numbers of nuclearweapons including the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
  • Promotions towards the protection of human rights for example the General Assemblyadopted the universal declaration of human rights in 1948 which identifies the universalrights and freedoms of a person in spite of age, gender or race.
  • Promotion of humanitarian efforts including support for refugees, relief provision forthose in distress like those experiencing natural calamities.
  • Promotion for democracy and good governance for example in 1970s South Africa andSouthern Rhodesia were slapped with UN sanctions due to failure in the area ofdemocracy and good governance.
  • Establishment of environmental programs that fight against environmental degradationby helping the global community to realize the dangers of the climatic changeparticularly global warming and how to reduce the dangers. For example the UnitedNations Environmental Program whose headquarters is in Nairobi Kenya.
  • Fighting for underdevelopment through establishment of different programs such asUnited Nations Development Program (UNDP) this assists nations of the world tostrategize on how to uplift development through industrialization and agriculture.
  • Promotion of health, education and cultural interaction among the people of the worldregardless of their race, languages and geographical areas.

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