Saturday, November 26, 2022


  e-SBO       Saturday, November 26, 2022

The Meaning of Scramble for and Partition of Africa
explain the meaning of scramble for and partition of Africa
The scramble for Africa:A competition among European powers to obtaining colonies.
Partition: This was a process of dividing colonies to their respective colonial masters. This acts as a solution for the scramble of Africa.
Periodisation:Scramble for Africa started more in 1870s while involving different European countries.
The Causes of the Scramble for Africa leading to the Partition
Assess the causes of the scramble for Africa leading to the partition
“Scramble” for and partition of Africa was a result of several factors, some of which included:
  1. National balance of power while other European countries demanded colonies to be equal or similar to Great Britain.
  2. Prestige (pride) of the nations: The number of colonies controlled by the colonial master/nation was the measure of wealth of a nation.
  3. Industrial Revolution led to the demand of raw materials from Africa hence competition among the European nations to obtain many colonies as possible in Africa.
  4. Industrial revolution led to overproduction in Europe hence creating a need to find external markets (outside Europe) thus resulting in competition.
  5. Change of monopoly system: In Europe few capitalists started to own land while others failed (those who failed to obtain land in Europe they started to find in Africa hence competition).
  6. Conflicts between capitalists and labourers in Europe while labourers demanded bigger salaries capitalists started to look for cheaper labour thus started economic activities in Africa.
Why Areas in Africa Experienced more Intensive Scramble than Others
Explain why areas in Africa experienced more intensive scramble than others
During the scramble for and partition of Africa some African areas like Egypt, Congo basin, Niger delta, East Africa, Central Africa and South Africa experienced more intensive scramble than others due to their potential. These included natural resources that existed in the colonies i.e. minerals in South Africa, fertile soil in central Africa, water bodies in East Africa, Egypt and Congo.
The Impact of the Scramble for and Partition of Africa
Assess the impact of the scramble for and partition of Africa
The scramble for and partition of Africa affected both European powers and the African continent as well. Some of the impacts included
  • the Berlin conference,
  • cultural interference,
  • disputes and rivalries,
  • occurrence of war among European powers,
  • establishment of colonial rule,
  • colonial economy and monopoly companies in Africa.

The Berlin conference was a meeting held in Berlin that was called by Chancellor Otto von Bismark of Germany. The meeting took place between November 1884 and February 1885. 14 European countries were represented at this conference. USA and Denmark attended the conference as observers. Members in this meeting drew out a map of Africa ready for partition (drawing out colonial master’s borders marking their respective colonies (African States) that they would colonise).
The Events Leading to the Berlin Conference (1884/85
Explain the events leading to the Berlin conference (1884/85)
The events leading to the Berlin conference in 1884-1885 included the intervention of the late comers in the process of scramble for and partition of Africa. Military confrontation, conflicts over territorial boundaries, European nationalism, German unification, hostility relations, European industrialization, disputes and rivalries among the European powers.
The Resolutions of the Berlin Conference
Evaluate the resolutions of the Berlin conference
Representatives at the Berlin conference agreed on the following principles: (these principles were to be followed by all colonial masters).
  1. To abolish slave trade on their colonies: All and any elements of slave trade in their respective colonies.
  2. They agreed to send a lot of missionaries, traders and explorers on their respective colonies.
  3. They were required to stop or to make an end of resistances that occurred between Africans and colonial government.
  4. They were required to have effective control of their colonies e.g. by building/constructing social services.
  5. Colonial masters were required to notify other on the possession of colonies.
  6. They agreed to have free navigation on the navigable rivers like Congo, Nigeria etc. (In order to solve the conflict between the European Countries).
  7. They were required to open up economic activities on their respective colonies (establishment of colonial economy e.g. agriculture, trading industry etc.)
The Berlin conference involved division of colonies to the imperial trading companies e.g.
  • BEACO - Kenya
  • BSACO - South Africa, S. Rhodesia, N. Rhodesia
  • GEACO - Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi
Others involved:
  • Germany - Cameroon, Togo
  • France - Congo, Kinshasa, Tunisia, Morocco, Senegal etc.
  • Belgium - Congo Brazzaville
  • Portugal - Angola and Mozambique
The Significance of the Berlin Conference to Africa
Assess the significance of the Berlin conference to Africa
The Berlin Conference had significance to Africa, addressing the colonization of Africa, abolition of slave trade, suffering of African people under colonial administration, division of African continent, introduction of European language as well as land alienation.

The Concept of Colonialism
Explain the concept of colonialism
Colonialism refers to a situation whereby strong nations dominate weak ones economically, politically, militarily or culturally. Africa was subjected to colonialism in the 2nd half of 19th century as European powers acquired full control over African countries by 1900 and extended their colonial rule to the entire continent with the exclusion of Ethiopia and Liberia.
The Tactics Used to Impose Colonial Control /Rule in Africa
Explain the tactics used to impose colonial control /rule in Africa
The process of colonial occupation in Africa by the Europeans that started from the 19th Century involved different techniques, these techniques were depending on the nature of colonial Government and Africans.
These techniques included:
  1. Treaty making
  2. Force
  3. Collaboration
  4. Dual tactics (Treaties and force)
Treaty making
These were bogus agreements that were signed by European agents and African rulers (African rulers signed without understanding what they were signing or what the agreement meant) on signing these treaties African rulers were promised to be given luxurious things by the Europeans (1880s)
Examples of these treaties:
  1. Carl Peters signed a treaty with the chief of Usagara, Kilosa, Pangani etc.
  2. French Lochner (BSACO) signed a treaty with Lewanika (N. Rhodesia 1860)
  3. Maffat signed with Lobengula on taking Matobele land while Lobengula was promised to be given: £ 100 £ 500 (instead of gunboat) 100 Rifles
  4. Savognan De Brazza signed with Makoko Chief (Congo Brazzaville) 1881 –1882
Why the use of treaties.
African rulers signed the treaties due to:
  1. Some African rulers were weak economically and politically thus they were in need of assistance.
  2. African rulers were ignorant as they signed without understanding what they signing.
Forces/ violence
This was a method, which involved the use of weapons to occupy colonies. The method was highly used in the strongest African societies. Example
  1. Germany Vs. Hehe
  2. Germany Vs. Abushiri and the Coastal people
  3. Germany Vs. Bwana Heri and Coastal people
  4. Germany Vs. Mahemba and Yao.
Why the use of force
African rulers use force/violence due to:
  • Some states African rulers were strong economically and politically
  • The nature of colonial Government believed they had to use force e.g. Germany
Collaboration (Alliance)
In this method Europeans tended to form an alliance with some African societies to oppose other Africans.
The method was used on those areas with conflict. Example:
  • Mangi Marealle and Germany against other Africans. E.g. Mangi Sina, Mangi Meli
  • Sangu, Bena and Germany Vs. Hehe
  • Shona and the British against Ndebele (Matebele)
  • Herero and Germany against Nama
Why the use of collaboration
The African rulers use collaboration because
  • Some Africans were weak politically and economically. Hence they were in need of assistance.
  • Some Africans were ignorant
  • Assimilation policy
  • Association policy
Indirect rule
Was a system of administration that involved the use of African personnel to fill the the lowest posts of administration.
Who used this System?
It was used by British an administration their colonies starting from 1920s e.g. in Nigeria, Tanganyika.
Indirect rule has its origins in the northern part of Nigeria when Sir Laggard (from England) decided to use African Emirs to control the Northern part involving Fulani, Ibo etc. In 1919 Sir Laggards started to use African Emirs in the northern part while in 1922 the system was well known to all parts of West Africa. Indirect rule was introduced in Tanganyika in 1926.
Conditions/Factors that led to the introduction of indirect rule in Africa (advantages of indirect rule)
Indirect rule in Africa was introduced due to the following factors:
  1. It was introduced to reduce the cost of administration (while African personnel were cheap).
  2. The shortage of European administrators, in Africa led to the introduction of indirect rule in Africa (as African personnel were used to help the colonial Government).
  3. Indirect rule helped European administrators with collecting tax and obtaining cheap labour (African leaders were used to collect tax and source cheap labourers).
  4. Due to the remoteness (poor infrastructure) of some areas, European colonial masters failed to reach all areas and decided to use Africans leaders (puppets).
  5. Climate conditions e.g. tropical climate affected a lot of Europeans they became susceptible to tropical diseases thus they decided to use Africans in those areas.
  6. Language problems: While Europeans failed to communicate with local people educated Africans were used instead.
  7. It was introduced in order to solve enmity between African and colonial Government Africans started to believe that they are ruled by their fellow Africans. Due to this it reduced resistances from the Africans.
Effects of indirect rule (on Africans)
Indirect rule had several effects to the Africans as follows:
  1. It led to the formation of classes, that is families of African leaders where considered of a higher class than others.
  2. It increased exploitation of African human and natural resources.
  3. After independence of some Africans nations they continued to use local rulers like chiefs to administer their societies.
Assimilation Policy
Was a system of administration used by the French in their colonies (the system involves more on cultural change. This system of administration comes from French Language “Assimila” that means caused “to resemble”.
Origin:The origins of assimilation can be deduced from the French revolution of 1789 while after the decline of Monarch Government, Napoleon. Bonaparte was intending to build a strong nation.
In order to build a strong nation they also needed to spread their culture (French Culture) in 1920s. This was a time when the French started to use this system in their colonies. The system was used in Senegal and other parts like Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria etc.
Implementation of assimilation policy (how assimilation policy was introduced in Africa).
Implementation of Association policy was highly involving in cultural change as follows:
  1. They built schools on their colonies that used the French language as the medium for instruction and French culture in general (educated Africans were made to behave like the French that they resemble French people).
  2. Africans were given certificates that were used as an identity to obtain French passport. Evolved (those who attained certificate) were allowed to enter in France.
  3. In order to blind Africans: French colonies were known as “Provinces” and not colonies. (Province meant outside France).
  4. Europeans introduced provinces in Africa having the same name like that of France e.g. four province were introduced i.e. Goree, Rafisque, Dakar and St. Louis.
  5. The four provinces were used as headquarters while in Dakar it was to act as headquarter of others under governor in charge.
  6. They allowed Africans and Europeans representatives in legilco (in France). This was a guise to blind Africans.
Failure of assimilation policy
Assimilation policy started to fail in the 1930s and was replaced with the association policy.
Factors for the failure of assimilation policy
  1. Muslims rejected to send their sons and daughters in Mission Schools (thus it was not possible to introduce this system in these areas).
  2. Some Africans resisted the colonial government due to cultural interference.
  3. Assimilation policy was expensive to carry out and the French decided to introduce another system of administration which that was cheaper, association policy.
  4. Since assimilation involved cultural change it was not beneficial to the colonial government (economic gain was less).
  5. Influence of educated African elites who started to fight against the colonial government (they started to mobilise their fellow Africans against the colonial government.
  6. Africans were highly exploited that is, in terms of natural and human resources hence they started to resist colonial government).
Association Policy
Was a system of administration used by the French after the failure of assimilation policy. This system started to be used more in 1930s. In this they started to associate Africans in the production of material wealth e.g. raw materials. It was at this time when African leaders started being used by the colonial governments.
Association policy involved the use of African chiefs who were divided into three types that is:
  • Chef de village - (chief of the village)
  • Chef de conton - (chief of the district)
  • Chef de communes - (chief of the province)
Those leaders were used in forcing Africans to pay tax and on obtaining African labourers (to be used on colonial economies).
Activity 1
Explain the reasons for the failure of the assimilation policy and the introduction of the association policy.
  1. Define association policy and assimilation policy.
  2. In one paragraph, explain briefly what assimilation policy is.
  3. Factors for the introduction of association policy.
  4. How did the French introduce Association policy (in brief)?

The Meaning of African Reactions to Colonial Rule
Explain the meaning of African reactions to colonial rule
Reaction means response to something (whether in a negative or positive manner). Africans' reaction to colonialists highly depended on the nature of Africans in the area and the colonial governments’ style (it depended on the ways/methods used by the colonial rulers on imposition of colonial rules).
The Various Form of African Reactions
Explain the various form of African reactions
This response of Africans to colonial rulers can be divided into two types being active and passive.
Africans responded negatively against Europeans
Africans obeyed colonial rules.
Nature of African response to colonial imposition
The nature of Africans’ response to colonial rule imposition can be divided into four forms:
  • Violence
  • Non Violence
  • Mercenary
  • Adoption
The Causes of and Reasons for the Different African Reactions
Account for the causes of and reasons for the different African reactions
This involves Africans who tended to use weapons against colonial rules. This method was highly used by the strangest African societies such as:
  • Abushiri and Coastal people against Germans
  • Hehe against Germans
  • Ndebele against British
  • Jaja of Opobo against British
Why the use of violence
The reasons are:
  • Some Africans were politically and economically strong and ere able to resist the Europeans.
  • Harsh treatment from colonial rulers forced Africans to use violence.
  • Africans were exploited for natural and human resources and started to fight back.
Non violence
Some Africans decided to flee their homes our of fear of European colonialists and some of them decided to boil seeds before planting them, striking against the colonial rule. Example, non-violence was used by the Maasai and Haya (in East Africa).
Why the use of non violence
The reasons are:
  • Africans who used this system were politically and economically week.
  • Nature of economic activities, It was not easy for nomadic pastoralist to use violence.
  • Some Africans were affected by diseases e.g. Jiggers for the Haya.
This was a response where some African societies started to hire soldiers from other societies e.g. Nyamwezi tribe used to hire soldiers from the Ngoni tribe (soldiers known as Rugaruga) to fight against the colonial rulers.
Why the use of mercenaries
Some of the societies were weak hence they needed assistance from other soldiers.
Some African societies tended to copy the methods of fighting from the European colonial masters during their friendship.These African societies started to use the methods to fight against colonial rule e.g. Menelek of Ethiopia who fought against Italians using this method.
Why the use of adaptations
It was due to the weakness of some African societies who tended to copy the methods of fighting.
The Factors which Determined the Nature of African Reactions
Assess the factors which determined the nature of African reactions
Factors which determine the nature of African reactions included military strength, ideological beliefs, diseases, economic strength, existence of missionaries, geographical position, nature of the state, the role of leaders, level of colonial exploitation and political awareness among the Africans.




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