Saturday, December 10, 2022


  Eli-express       Saturday, December 10, 2022
The scientific study of human population is referred to as demography. It covers its growth, density, distribution and movement as well as the aspect of economic and social development.
Define the term population
Population is related to the development process and environment. This is because it is a reproductive resource that transform the environmental resources to bring development. As such population is both a means and goal of all development. Thus it requires essential services like education, law and order. As a resource, it provides labour force, especially when skilled so as to be used in the production process in various sectors of the economy.
Population can have negative effects on development especially when there is low education and technology, overpopulation and under population.
Over population leads to excessive utilisation of resources, poor housing, pollution and conflict over resources: Under population leads to under utilisation of some resources.All this help the government to plan and implement effectively the process of providing social services.
The word population comes from latin word populus meaning people.
Population or human population refers to the total number of people found in a given area at a specified time.
Population size refers to the total number of people in the country. This may change over time due to the dynamic components like birth, death and migration. Population size is obtained through censuses.
The Characteristics of Human Population
Describe characteristics of human population
  1. It is unevenly distributed over the surface such that some areas have low density other have medium density and some areas have high density population other areas have no population at all.
  2. Population is dynamic in the sense that it is migratory as people move from one place to another place either permanently or temporarily depending on the prevailing conditions.
  3. Population has age – gender structure.
This refers to the composition or proportion of population in terms of gender, age and occupation
  1. Population is characterised by variation in the level of development and technology, Such as Japan, America and France while other countries are less developed or poor due to the use of low technology like Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique.
  2. Population usually face problems like diseases such as HIV-AIDS, Environment calamities like famine and flood as well as earthquake.
The Importance of Studying Population
Explain the importance of studying population
The importance of population:
  1. It promotes the supply of labour that can be used in exploiting or harnessing the idle resources like minerals, land, water bodies etc.
  2. It can encourage or stimulate the diffusion of technology into the destination from other areas the people who migrate posses different skills of different environmental orientations these can be spread into destination and help in the utilisation of local resources.
  3. Migration can lead to the expansion of market for the local goods in the destination regions
  4. It can encourage intensification of agricultural activities as a result of the reduction in the size of arable land.
  5. It can stimulate the growth of towns (urbanisation) and the associated advantages.
  6. Development of strong defenses against external enemies.

Population distribution refers to the way people are spread out on the land. Population distribution is uneven since some areas are densely settled while others are not. Or sometime population distribution can be described as being even or uneven, scattered or concentrated in a particular places.
This describes the concentration of people in a specific area. There are places where people are concentrated in one area while the land in the neighborhood may be unoccupied.Population density is obtained by taking the number of people in a given area and dividing that number by the total area of the place. Thus it gives us the number of persons per unit area of land. Population density can be described as dense, moderate, or sparse.
Factors Governing Human Population Distribution
Describe factors governing human population distribution
The distribution of population in the surface of the earth is not uniform due to many factors. These factors can be classified into four main groups, namely physical, historical, economical and political.
The physical factors are divided into climate, relief, vegetation, soil, drainage and diseases.
Temperature and rainfall are the two main influential climatic elements. People have a tendency to adapt to moderate variations in temperature. Extreme temperatures however play a significant role as far as human population is concerned.
Very high temperature like those experienced in Tanga, Zanzibar and Dar es salaam discourage human settlement and consequently influence the population pattern.
Places receiving rainfall of over 1000 mm are densely populated, e.g. Kilimanjaro and Kagera.
Areas of high attitude have low population because of extremely low temperatures experienced there. Most crops do not do well beyond an attitude of 2500 m. However some communities choose to live in the mountain areas for security reasons.
Dense forests are sparsely populated. It is difficult to develop communication line in such areas. They are also habitats for wild animals which may be a danger to human habitation, Livestock and crops. Areas such as Miombo woodlands of Tanzania are infested with tsetse flies which are a threat to people and livestock. This has discouraged settlement in such areas.
Areas with fertile soil such as those areas around lake Victoria have attracted many people. Place with infertile soils such as the leached soils of the savannah are sparsely settled because they are agriculturally unproductive.
Well drainage areas attract settlement and hence have high population. Swampy places and areas with seasonal swamps are normally uninhabited. Such places do not attract settlement or farming. People avoid settling in areas that are prone to flooding.
Historical events may also be responsible for low population densities in some areas. In the 18thcentury, many parts of the East, Central and West Africa were affected by slave trade. Strong young men and women were captured and sold as slaves to go and work on the farms in the West Indies and America. Some were taken as slaves to the Arab world. Meanwhile, other people ran away from the same areas to avoid being captured and never returned. This reduced population in these areas.
Tribal conflicts and war have led to some places becoming sparsely populated as people, seeking safety move away from them.
Economic development resulting from activities such as exploitation of natural resources attract a large population of job-seekers and service providers. Mining centres, no matter how remote they may be in a country, usually attract large population.
People move and settle near established transport routes such as roads. The establishment of towns and industries attract human settlements for similar reasons as mining. This accounts for the large population in the major towns of East Africa.
Political unrest in many parts of the world have caused migration from certain areas. Between 1971 – 1979 many Ugandans ran away from their homeland to other parts of the country or into neighboring countries to avoid political persecution during the reign of dictator Idi Amin. Many people from Southern Sudan and Somalia have sought refugee status in Kenya in recent years because of political instability in their respective countries.
Some government programmes may require the removal of people from certain areas in order to settle them in new areas. For example the construction of large dams or road constructions. This cause formerly inhabited areas to become sparsely populated while new settlement realize an increase in population.
National parks and forest reserves are areas that are controlled by the government. Human occupation of such areas is therefore prohibited. These areas are sparsely populated with the only people living there being workers and, in some isolated cases, illegal squatters.

Population Change
Define Population Change
Population change refers to the difference between the size population at the beginning and at the end of a period. It can refer to the growth or decline in population.
Population change can also be described as population growth. This is the increase (positive growth) or decrease (negative growth) in the number of the people. Change in the population is caused by birth, death and migration.
Factors which Influence Population Change
Explain factors which influence population change
Population change can also be described as population growth. This is the increase (positive growth) or decrease (negative growth) in the number of the people. Change in the population is caused by birth, death and migration.
A high birth rate coupled with a low death rate result in a positive change in population. This translates into an increase in population.
A high birth rate is caused by high fertility and fecundity within a population.
Fertility is defined as the ability to conceive or to reproduce. Fecundity refers to the ability to give birth to many children’s i.e. high fertility.
Fertility rate is expressed as a ratio of live birth in an area to the population of that area.
For example, according to the United Nations estimates for 1995 - 2000, the total fertility for Tanzania was 5.5 children per women aged between 15 and 49 years. This is the average number of children that a women of a child-bearing age will have in her life time.
The factors influencing fertility include the level of education of the women, urbanization, career prospects and birth control measures. These factors tend to influence fertility rate.
The high fertility rate in East Africa is attributed to improved nutrition, improved health services and weakening of the traditional customs like prolonged period of breastfeeding and sexual abstinence after birth.
The Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The crude birth rate is estimated rate of births in a year. It is not a precise figure because the values for the total population that are used for the calculation are an estimate as by the middle of the year.
It is obtained by dividing the total number of the birth recorded in the year by the estimated total population by the mid year and multiplying the fraction by 1,000. The formula would beTotal number of births in the year x 1,000Total population (mid-year estimates) Tanzania crude birth rate during the period 1995 to 2000 was 40.2 annual live births per 1000 persons.
This factor is sometime expressed as mortality and it refers to the number of deaths within a given population. There are three types of death rates.
Infant Mortality Rate. Is the number of deaths in the first year of life per one thousand live births.
Child Mortality Rate. Is the number of deaths of children aged between 1 and 5 years per one thousand live births.
Adult Mortality Rate. Refers to the number of adult dying per one thousand of the total population.
Mortality is significant in that it results in reduction of population numbers. It also affects the population structure.
A high death rate of a particular gender or age has a negative bearing on population growth.
Large-scale mortality may be caused by an outbreak of war, famine, disease epidemic or natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
The deaths of a large number of youths and men who are of child-bearing age reduce the number of people involved in child-bearing.
The Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The crude death rate is estimated rate of deaths against an estimated total population by the middle of the year in question. It is calculated in the same way as the crude birth rate,Thus: Total number of deaths rate in the year x 1000Total population (mid-year estimate)
The crude death rate is also expressed as the number of deaths per one thousands people. From the United Nations statistics, Tanzania crude death rate during 1995 to 2000 was 12.9 annual death per 1,000 persons.
The reasons why they use the term “Crude” is because other characteristics such as age, sex and composition within a population are ignored.
The natural population growth is obtained by subtracting the CDR from the CBR.It can be expressed as percentages asCBR-CDR X 1001000
From the 2002 population census conducted in Tanzania, the annual growth rate was found to be 2.9% for the period between 1988 and 2002 (i.e intercensal period).
Migration is the movement of people from place or region to another which result in change of residence.It may be temporary or permanently.
Migration may involve immigration where people come into a new area. Those people are referred to immigrants.
It may also involve emigration where people leave their native land for another land. These people are called emigrants.
Migration across countries borders is called International Migration.
Migration across the boundary within a country is called Internal Migration.
Such migration influence population change in both sides (Origin and Destination) which are affected positively or negatively.
Emigration of the large number of people from their native land results in reduction of population. In Africa, an exodus of people from their native countries has largely been attributed to civil wars.Large numbers of refugees flock neighboring countries result in an increase in population in the host countries.
Tanzania has been host to many refugees from Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and even Somalia.
Migration of these refugees has resulted in a decrease in population in their native countries. Some of the refugees may even opt to stay permanently in their host countries and some even change their citizenship. The populations of refugees also grow through children born among them within the host countries. All these result in positive change in population.
There two (2) types of migration which include internal migration and external (International) migration. These types of migration can be in a form of permanent, temporary, voluntary or involuntary.
This is a movement of people within a country. It can be temporary or longterm. It may be voluntary or forced. This type of migration goes on all the time and many governments do not attempt to control it.
The reasons for this type of migration are varied. They include searching of jobs, settlement, seeking safer areas or improvement of people’s lives. There are those who move to parts or countries where the climate is more favorable. There are four forms of internal migration
  1. Rural to Urban migration. In this form, people move from rural areas to towns. People migrate in search of jobs, better social amenities or education, some move to avoid wide spread of unemployment in the rural areas or work on farms.
  2. Rural to rural migration. In this form, people move from one rural area to another. Some people move into plantations for employment in the large farms. There are those who moved into new settlement and do farming.
Nomadic pastoralists migrate in search of water and pasture for their animals.
  1. Urban to rural migration. Some migrants who moved to towns in search of jobs move back to rural areas to settle because they now have capital to invest in the rural areas.
  2. Urban to urban migration. Are migrants who may move from one town to another. This may in search of better employment or business opportunities.
External migration are also know as international, interstate or inter-regional migration. It is the movement of people from their own countries to other countries. The people involved are referred to as in their original countries, emigrants and as Immigrants in their destination countries.
Migration may be voluntary as in the case where people go for further studies, employment or settlement or it may be forced as in the case of refugees.
This migration can be temporary or permanent. For example International tourists are temporary migrants
The Effects of Population Change to an Individual and the Nation
Analyse the effects of population change to an individual and the nation
The effect of population change are quite varied. Population change affect both the individuals as well as the nations at large. The effect can be positive or negative.
A high fertility rate results in a large number of children that a family has to look after.Migration has its own effects on individuals in the number of ways.
  1. Some individuals may change their life styles by becoming more sophisticated. This happens after gaining more skills and exposure to more sophisticated lifestyles where the individual migrated to.
  2. Some individuals after migrating to urban areas and getting jobs, may take a much longer time to get married.
  3. When spouses are separated for long periods of time, this may lead to break up of marriages. Either spouse may engage in extra marital relationships during the period of absence of the partner.
  4. Some individuals who migrate to urban areas lose their cultural values and this lead to immorality. Some turn to crime.
  5. Some people saves lot of money from the income they get from working. The income is used to improve their standards of living.
It tends to lead to increased poverty. This is because these countries are lagging behind in technological advancement in areas such as agriculture and industries because of the insufficient capital as well as poor management of resources.
As technological advancement continues, population pressure may cease.
  1. Over population is a situation where by a region or country has such a high population that it cannot be supported fully due to a strain on the available resources. In such a situation, many people live in object poverty.
  2. Over population also leads to unemployment or even under development of a nation or even under employment.
  3. Over population lead to poor housing and health facilities because demand for these facilities is far greater than the supply.
  4. Agricultural resources are underutilized because of shortage of land and traditional land tenure systems which hinder modernization of agriculture
  5. Slow industrial growth because of shortage of skilled labor. Although there is a large labor force, it is largely unskilled.
By conclusion; Most over populated developing nations have a population that is largely traditional. The bias of traditional attitudes slow down modern development as many people stick to the traditional customs and ways of doing things.
A large population increase the demand for food. This demand reduce the production of cash crops while increasing production of food crops.

Means information on population. Or is the information pertaining to population and relate direct with some economic, social and demographic matters.
Sources of Population Data
Explain the sources of population data
There are two basic sources of population data, There are Primary sources and Secondary sources.
  1. Primary sources, this is a source of population data which is obtained directly via registration of person like registration of births and deaths, data is also obtained first hand when there is population census and when sample survey are limited amount of data could also be obtained from resourceful persons.
  2. Secondary sources of population data, include reports in population which are compiled and published as census reports, data is also obtained from textbooks and other reference books, atlases, magazines, newspaper, journals, periodicals and research papers.
It can also be obtained from draft reports, annual reports as well statistical abstracts which are published annually and are available in government offices.
Population data may also be obtained or available in the electronic media as well as on the internet.
Interpretation of Population Data
Interpret population data
When population data has been collected, it is subjected to processing or analysis. It is during this process that calculations are made, these include means densities, birth and death rate, sex ratios and other relevant information population
Statistics can be studied in their raw form or in a processed form by studying such information conclusion can be made and explanation sought. Example of data presentation;
The Uses of Population Data
Explain the uses of population data
  1. Population numbers and density enable the government to plan on low to allocate resources. Also the knowledge of population can be useful in solving land congestion.
  2. Data birth and death rates as well as fertility and mortality enable government to plan how to provide medical services and health education, especially where the death rate is very high.
  3. Data on migration can enable a government to plan how to curb influx of people into urban areas from the rural regions if corrective measure are taken, loss of man power in the rural areas would be curbed as well as reducing influx of immigrants in urban centres.
  4. Knowing the number of dependents enable the government to plan for expansion of schools, medical and other social amenities to take care of large number of children below the age of 15. When the government has ideas about the number of the aged, It can budget for provision of welfare better.
  5. It enable planning for creation of jobs, population census data provide information about overpopulation and underpopulation.

Human population refers to the total number of people at a given place in specific period of time.Population problem refers to the problems which human population face in a certain area, these problems occur in groups as follows:
  1. Lack of provision of social services especially health services to adult people
  2. Lack of social security measure that address problems of elders
Children and Youth
  1. Lack of development policies and laws that support family stability.
  2. Lack of development of talents and capabilities of the children and youth.
People with disabilities
  1. Failure in encouraging private sectors and religious organisation to invest in provision of social services for people with disabilities as well as poor government policies on people with disabilities
  2. Refugees.
  3. Lack of preparedness plan for handling refugees.
Analysis of Population Problems
Analyse population problems
Population problems are challenges associated with the existing population. Population increases should match the capacity of resources to support the growing population. The extent to which resources are used determine whether there is over-population or under-population. When resources match with existing population it is called optimal population.
The Effects of the Population Change on Economic Growth, Labour, Human Needs and Investment, and Suggest Possible Solutions
Analyse the effects of the population change on economic growth, labour, human needs and investment, and suggest possible solutions
Population problems arising from birth rates, deaths rates and migration have an impact on economic growth, labor, human need and investment. Example if population increase very rapid it results to availability of labour which is cheap but people with low incomes. Investment in consumer goods will increase as the result of increasing demand.

Population Policy
Explain the meaning of population policy
Population policy refers to the statement law or regulations enacted to some demographic goals. It is a deliberate effort by the government to influence the demographic factors like fertility, mortality and migration. Thus the ultimate goal of the population policy is to influence population size, composition, distribution and growth. The policy also tends to take into consideration the relationship between population and development as well as the impact on environment condition.
POPULATION POLICY CAN BE EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT EXPLICIT POPULATION POLICY, refer to the document or clear statement issued by the government department and its commission which is intended to control population growth and raise the standard of life of the people in the country. Explicit policies can also stem from the law, policy declaration by a party or directive issued by the President of the country. Explicit laws are well stipulated and strictly followed or reinforced. Such policies prevailed in China where the limit in the number of children was set and incentives were given to all those who could follow while penalties were given to those who did not follow. Other countries with explicit policy are Sweden and England. Hence the explicit policy is the elaborate statement that spell out the rationale objective, goals, targets policy program and implementation.
IMPLICIT POLICIES, refer to particular law, regulation or statement, which may have direct or indirect effect on population growth. Implicit policy is not as elaborate as explicit since it is somehow unclear and cannot be easily understood leading to failure in terms of implementation.
Population policies, whether explicit or implicit, have the ultimate aim of influencing a country’s population size, composition, distribution and growth.
  1. Consideration of regional and district variation with regard to the level of socio-economic development
  2. Adherence to the development vision which among other things emphasize the role of the market in determining resources allocation and uses
  3. Continued democratization of the political system with its intended political pluralism as symbolized in the emergence of various political parties or actors and mushroom of independent mass media
  4. Thrift exploitation of the country’s non-renewable resources taking consideration the needs of future generations.
  5. Recognition and appreciation of the central role of the government, NGOs, private sector communities and individuals in population and development.
This policy takes cognizance of the achievement, constraint and limitation of implementing post population policies as well as new development and continuing challenges.
The achievement of both implicit and explicit population policies include the followings:
  1. Considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people for example fertility, infant and child mortality has decline overtime
  2. Adoption of an explicit population policy in 1992, which recognised the links and interrelationship between population, resources, the environment and development.
  3. Expansion and /or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country
  4. Increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities including advocacy and social mobilisation, service delivery and capacity building.
  5. High knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement in family planning which has increased contraceptive prevalence from about 10 in 1980s to 16 in 1996.
Comparison of the National Population Policy on Family Planning Strategies in Tanzania to the Population Policies of other Countries
Compare the national population policy on family planning strategies in Tanzania to the population policies of other countries
Tanzania is not the only country which has adopted a population policy. In the 1950's, China was overpopulated and in 1952 it became the first country to introduce a population policy. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and launched its first population policy in 1988.



« Prev Post

No comments:

Post a Comment