Saturday, December 10, 2022


  Eli-express       Saturday, December 10, 2022
Define tourism
Tourism refers to the travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family, or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country.
Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries. So tourism is very important for economic growth.
There are two categories of tourism, namely, domestic and international tourism. Domestic tourism involves travel within the same country. For example, when someone sets out from Dar es Salaam to Mikumi National Park to view wild animals, he or she is practising domestic tourism.
International tourism involves travelling from one country to another for leisure, business, education, etc. For example, many people travel from Europe and America to Tanzania to climb Mount Kilimanjaro, view wild game in national parks, or visit cultural places such as the Amboni Caves, Kilwa ruins, and other interesting sites for leisure and refreshment. International tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's economy.

Factors Which have Contributed to the Development and Growth of Tourism in the World
Describe factors which have contributed to the development and growth of tourism in the world
Physical factors
  • Good climate: Good climate is one of the most important features of attraction for any tourist place. Pleasant climate with warmth and ample sunshine attracts tourists who come from the temperate and colder regions. For example, most tourists from temperate countries visit Tanzania when it is winter in their home countries in order to enjoy the warm and favourable climate found in Tanzania. On the other hand, people from summer areas migrate to cooler regions to seek pleasure of coldness and fresh environment. Other countries such as Switzerland, Sweden, etc have a cooler climate that attracts tropical tourists.
  • Beautiful scenery: This refers to the beautiful features that are attractive to look at. Tourism booms at picnic spots with beautiful sceneries. For example, sunrise and sunset points, long sea beaches, mountains, craters, lakes, canyons, deserts, waterfalls, etc., often attract large numbers of tourists.
Socio-economic factors
  1. Accessibility: Of all socio-economic factors, accessibility is the most important one. All tourist centres must be easily accessible by various modes of transportation like roads, railways, air and water. To enjoy seeing nature's beautiful sites, travelling by roads and railways is a better option. If a tourist plans to reach a remote tour-destination in the quickest possible time, then airway is the most suitable choice. Generally, waterways are seldom selected unless a tourist decides to enjoy a luxury travel experience in sea and/or interested to visit an isolated group of islands.
  2. Accommodation: Places of tourists' interest must be able to provide good accommodation and catering facilities. A type of accommodation required by tourists depends on their lifestyles, standard of living, capacity to spend money, nature of services expected, etc. Classification of accommodation centres (i.e. various hotels, motels, dormitories, lodges, cottages, etc.) on basis of rating, like five stars and below, is essential so that tourists can make a proper choice and plan their trips appropriately. Generally, tourism mostly prospers in those areas where good lodging and food facilities are available at reasonable prices.
  3. Amenities: Growth of tourism at a particular place is also influenced by crucial factors such as how well the site is maintained for touring activities like skiing, roping, paragliding, rowing, fishing, surfing, safari adventure, etc and whether emergency facilities are available or not, and so forth.
  4. Ancillary services: If a tour destination is equipped by ancillary (supplementary) services like banking and finance, the internet and telecom connectivity, hospitals, insurance, so on, then such a place succeeds to hold (retain) more tourists for a longer time. This helps to boost the local economy to some extent.
Political factors
People like to travel around the world if there is peace, harmony and stability like Tanzania. They normally avoid areas with political problems such as civil wars. In case of instability, due to war or terror attacks, people travel less to countries affected with such chaos. Often, some countries warn their citizens about visiting countries with political instability like tribal wars, terror attacks, political unrest, etc. For example, after September 11 terror attack on the US, her citizens were warned not to travel to certain destinations.
Also the government policy can encourage the development of the tourism industry by financing or giving favourable conditions which are not restrictive to visitors touring the country
Historical and cultural factors
Many tourists are attracted to places of historical significance and which have a legacy of rich cultural heritage. People love and enjoy exploring destinations where there are famous ancient monuments, marvellous forts, castles and palaces ruled by kings and queens in historical times, etc. Examples of places that are famous throughout the world for their historical and cultural accounts are Kilwa ruins in Tanzania, Fort Jesus in Kenya, Taj Mahal in India, Nazca lines and Machu Picchu in Peru, Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, Great Wall of China and Stonehenge in England.
Religious factors
People often make pilgrims to places of religious importance to seek inner peace, get blessing of their favourite gods and spiritual leaders, attain salvation before death, etc. Here, faiths, beliefs and sentiments of people contribute in booming tourism at holy places. Examples of places that are well known for their religious significance are Jerusalem in Israel, Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia, Varanasi and Amritsar in India, etc.
Other factors
  • Adventures: Research activities and adventures of deep seas and caves, geological studies of hot-water springs and geysers, seismic analysis of active volcanoes, investigation of paranormal activities in abandoned spiritual towns, etc also contribute in developing tourism on some scale.
  • Marketing: Tourism is nowadays being advertised via various mass media so as to alert the potential tourists about the presence of tourists’ attractions present in a given country. Various adverts are made via TV, radio, posters, documentaries, etc. In this way, the organizations and individuals involved in the tourism industry are able to attract many visitors. This leads to development of the tourism industry.
  • Trained manpower: Availability of trained manpower encourages development and expansion of the industry. People are trained about hospitality and how to care for the tourists. Training is based on languages and communication skills, hotel management, tour guide, and any knowledge on handling of tourists. Decent hospitality in destination countries normally encourages the tourists to visit them frequently.

Importance of Tourism in the World
Explain the importance of tourism in the world
Tourism has become one of the most important sectors in the world economy. Tourism is important in a number of ways which include the following:
  1. Source of employment:Tourism creates jobs through direct employment within the tourism industry, and indirectly in sectors such as retail and transportation, tour guiding, tour operation, hotel management, pottery, etc.When tourists spend their wages on goods and services, it leads to what is known as “multiplier effect”, creating more jobs. The tourism industry also provides opportunities for small scale business enterprises which is especially important in rural communities, and generates extra tax revenues such as airport and hotel taxes which can be used to improve social services such as education, health, and housing.
  2. Source of foreign exchange:Tourists pay for their services in foreign currency, which adds to the country’s foreign currency, thus helping to stabilise the economy.
  3. Improvement of infrastructure:The improvement of infrastructure and new leisure amenities that result from tourism also benefit the local communities. These infrastructures may include renovation of existing roads and construction of new ones, development of air strips and air ports, and improvement of communication facilities. All of these benefit the visitors as well as the local people.
  4. Promotes international relations:Tourism often involves the movement of people from one country to another. This movement of people promotes political, economic, and social relations between the countries.
  5. Source of government revenue:Tourism earns the countries of destination the revenue from various sources which include fees into game parks and reserves, taxes charged on various tourism services offered, and visa fees among others. This income can be invested in improvement of different social services.
  6. Conservation of wildlife and environment and protection of historical sites:Tourism contributes to conservation of wildlife and natural vegetation which leads to conservation of soil and catchment areas. If this was not done some animal and plant species would have been extinct and historical sites ruined.
  7. Economic use of marginal lands:Tourism enables the marginal unproductive land to be used for economic development rather than staying idle. For example national parks with wildlife which serve as tourist attractions occupy unproductive lands.
  8. Preservation of culture:Tourism encourages the preservation of traditional customs, handicraft, and festivals that might otherwise have been allowed to wane and it creates civic pride. Interchanges between hosts and guests create a better cultural understanding and can help promote global awareness of issues such as poverty and human rights abuses.
Impact of Tourism in the World
Identify impact of tourism in the world
Tourism can bring many economic and social benefits, particularly in developing countries. However, mass tourism is also associated with negative impacts. Tourism can only be sustainable it if is carefully managed so that potential negative effects on the host community and the environment are not permitted to outweigh the financial benefits.
Positive impacts of tourism
  1. As explained early, tourism has led to creation of job opportunities. Many people have been employed in the tourist sector, a fact which has helped improve their quality of life.
  2. It has led to development of infrastructure in host countries. In Tanzania, for example, roads to national parks such as Serengeti National Park have been improved. And also airstrips have been constructed in many national parks so as to facilitate the transport of tourists to and from the parks.
  3. It brings together people of different colours, cultures and religions. This leads to interaction of cultures, especially the awareness of other people’s values and belief which may be different from others. The outcome is realization of peace and harmony among different religions and culture.
  4. It leads to job creation in rural areas, thereby reducing rural-urban migration. This has led to reduction of population pressure and its associated effects in urban areas. In some cases, people move from urban to rural areas to engage in tourism activities.
  5. It has led to diversification of economies of countries involved in the sector. For example, tourism is now earring more revenue than agriculture and other sectors of the economy in Tanzania.
  6. Tourism has enabled sustainable conservation of wildlife and the environment and preservation of cultural heritage and historical sites.
  7. It earns the destination countries the much needed foreign exchange. For example, Tanzania’s economic growth is highly boosted by her flourishing tourism industry.
Negative impact of tourism
  1. Visitor behaviour can have adverse effects on the quality of life of the host community. For example, overcrowding and congestion, drug and alcohol problems, prostitution, and increased levels of crime can occur in areas where tourism takes place. There has been a marked increase in crime in areas frequently visited by tourists as these areas attract thieves who steal tourists’ and hosts’ properties as well as engaging in their illicit drug and other illegal businesses.
  2. Tourism can even infringe on human rights with locals being displaced from their land to make way for new hotels or barred from beaches. Interaction with tourists can also lead to erosion of traditional cultures and values.
  3. Tourism poses a threat to natural and cultural resources such as water supply, beaches, coral reefs and heritage sites through overuse. It also causes increased pollution through traffic emissions, littering, increased sewage production and noise.
  4. Successful tourism relies on establishing basic infrastructures such as roads, visitor centres and hotels. The cost of this usually falls on the government, so it has to come out of tax revenues that could otherwise be directed towards improvement of social services.
  5. Jobs created by tourism are often seasonal and poorly paid, yet tourism can push up local property prices and the cost of goods and services. Much as this has benefited the traders, the goods have become unaffordable to the locals.
  6. Money generated by tourism does not always benefit the local community as some of it leaks out to huge international companies such as hotel chains.
  7. Destinations depending on tourism can be adversely affected by events such as terrorism, natural disasters and economic recession. This may become a problem if the tourism sector is negatively affected. The governments and the local communities will be deprived of the foreign exchange leading to a drop in economic growth and hence the quality of life.
Ways of Addressing the Negative Impact of Tourism
State ways of addressing the negative impact of tourism
Ways of addressing negative impact of tourism include:
  1. Laws and policies should be put in place that ensures the revenue accrued from tourism benefits the local community and the government in general.
  2. Tourists should be directed to obey the culture and traditions of the host communities. For example, they should be ordered to dress in a manner acceptable to the host communities.
  3. The countries and local communities that depend heavily on tourism industry should diversify their revenue sources such that when the tourism industry collapses they do not suffer economic difficulties.
  4. In order to conserve and preserve the environment, tourists should be required to dispose off their litter in a proper way. Those who disobey the rules should be heavily fined. Also there should be restrictions on the number of vehicles allowed in a certain area so as to prevent air pollution caused by exhaust fumes.
  5. The laws, rules and regulations should be enacted and enforced to combat criminal incidences, child labour, drug abuse, and prostitution. This should be accompanied by stern punishments for those who fail to comply with the law.
  6. New tourist attractions should be established and developed so as to reduce pressure exerted to already established attractions. This will check congestion in the existing tourist centres.
  7. The local people should be involved in tourism activities so that they benefit in conserving the tourist attractions like wildlife conservation areas, etc.
  8. There should be integration of tourist activities with the protection of the environmental condition through the eco-tourism approach.

Factors for the Development of Tourism in Switzerland, Namibia and Tanzania
Describe factors for the development of tourism in Switzerland, Namibia and Tanzania
This section deals with tourism industries of selected countries around the world. In this case we shall study the tourism industries in Switzerland (Europe) and Namibia (Africa) as well as our own tourism industry in Tanzania.
Tourism in Switzerland
Switzerland is located in Central Europe, bordered on the North by France and Germany, on the East by Austria and Liechtenstein, on the South by Italy, and on the West and South-West by France. This land locked alpine country has an area covering 41,290 km2, making it slightly less than twenty three times the size of Tanzania.
Tourists are drawn to Switzerland’s Alpine climate and landscape, in particular for mountaineering (sport of mountain climbing, including skiing, hiking, skating, etc). As of 2011, tourism accounted for an estimated 2.9% of Switzerland’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Factors favouring the development of tourism in Switzerland
  1. Geographical factors:Switzerland is located in the centre of Europe, making it close to rich industrialised countries which are a major source of her tourists. These industrialised countries include France, Germany, Italy and Britain. In addition, the excellent transport network ensures easy and cheap movement of tourists.
  2. Beautiful scenery:Switzerland is a land of intense natural beauty, dominated by mountain peaks. Most travellers visit the country to experience the scenery and are also pleasantly surprised by the cultural treasures found in the cities and tourism centres.Places such as Zurich, Geneva, Basel and Lausanne offer world-class museums, lively arts scenes, lovely old architecture, fine dining and all the luxuries that come with great cities. There are also many smaller towns and resorts that can serve as a base for tourists looking to enjoy the landscape.
  3. Favourable climate:The climate is moderate, with no excessive heat, coldness or humidity. The snow during winter, encourage winter sports such as skiing and ice skating. Warm and sunny summers facilitate viewing of the beautiful scenery as well as swimming and sunbathing.
  4. Good transport system:Switzerland has a well development transport system, ranging from trains to ferries to cable cars that easily take visitors to tops of the mountains. Some means of transport include cars, buses, electric trains, cable cars and aerial lifts access mountain resorts. And because Switzerland is a small country its attractions are close together, so most of them can be reached quite easily.
  5. Accommodation:Switzerland has a great number of first-class hotels to suit the needs of its tourists. There are also cottages, camping sites, taverns and guest houses.
  6. Hospitality:The Swiss hospitality standard and methods have traditionally been regarded as the best in the word. The Swiss people are hospitable and the personnel handling tourists are well trained and efficient. The Swiss people speak a number of different languages, making it easy to communicate with visitors from a number of different countries.
  7. Political stability and neutrality:Switzerland has been and continues to be neutral in world affairs such as the world wars. As such, tourists from different parts of the world feel free and safe to visit the country since it has no enemies to endanger its security. With a low crime rate, Switzerland is very safe for tourism.
  8. Package tours:The organisation of package tours, in which all tour arrangements, including hotel bookings and travel are done by a company, has increased the number of tourists visiting Switzerland. These kinds of tours are affordable to many people in the society.
  9. Centre for international meetings:The headquarters of many international organisations such as WHO, ILO, FIFA, UNHCR and many others are based in Switzerland, particularly in the cities of Zurich and Geneva. Many meetings and conventions are held in Switzerland. People attending these meetings and conventions also take time off to tour the country, thus contributing to the country’s leisure business and tourism industry.
  10. Industrialization:Switzerland produces a variety of manufactured goods, some of which are used in the tourism industry. Because the country is highly industrialised, the employees earn good income and are able to save for holidays. Domestic tourism accounts for more than 25% of the tourist population.

Double-decker cable car: the first such cars in the world, able to carry 180 passengers
The Importance of Tourism in Switzerland, Namibia and Tanzania
Explain the importance of tourism in Switzerland, Namibia and Tanzania
The significance of tourism in Switzerland
  1. Source of employment:Many Swiss are employed in the tourism sector. About 5% of the workforce is employed in the sector, although this share is higher in mountain regions than it is in urban areas. This has enabled the people to improve their incomes and hence their standards of living.
  2. Source of foreign exchange:Tourism is an important source of foreign exchange. It is the third largest foreign exchange earner, thus contributing significantly to the country’s economy.
  3. International relations:The tourists visiting Switzerland from different countries help strengthen the relationship between Switzerland and the tourists’ countries of origin.
  4. Source of revenue:Tourism is a major source of Switzerland’s revenue. It accounts for about 3% of the total GDP.
  5. Environmental conservation:To ensure constant visit by tourists, the Swiss have taken much efforts to conserve their environment. Some measures have been taken to reduce emission of green house gases which can cause global warming and hence melt the snow on the Alps, thus destroying tourist attractions.
Importance of tourism in Namibia
  1. The revenue obtained from tourism industry is invested in the development of infrastructure such as transport and communication as well as improving other public services.
  2. Tourism contributes significantly to the country’s economy. It is the third contributor to the GDP after mining and agriculture respectively.
  3. The people of Namibia are employed directly and indirectly by the tourism sector. Employment in tourism amounts to about 20% of all formal jobs in Namibia. This has helped to reduce the level of unemployment in the country and has improved the living standards of Namibians significantly.
  4. Tourism has had a positive impact on resource conservation and rural development. It has ensured preservation of tourism attractions like national parks, game reserves, forest reserves and cultural centres. Some fifty commercial conservancies have been established across the country, covering 11.8 million hectares of land, resulting in enhanced land management while providing thousands of Namibians with much needed income.
  5. Social services have improved in the country especially with the introduction of community-based tourism.
  6. Namibia is highly respected by other stakeholders in the tourism industry especially in ecotourism. This promotes cooperation between Namibia and other countries of the world.
The importance of tourism in Tanzania
  1. Source of revenue:The government of Tanzania receives the highly needed revenue from the tourism industry. Revenue is collected on visa and gate fees at national parks and other sources. Also wildlife hunting companies pay money for the game hunting blocks and licences. The money obtained is invested in development projects and other social services.
  2. Improvement in the standard of living:The money gained by people engaged in the tourism industry improves their livelihood. This has also improved their purchasing power, enabling them to contribute to the development of other sectors such as manufacturing and agriculture.
  3. Source of employment:Many Tanzanians are employed directly and indirectly in the tourism industry. People are employed to work in tourist hotels; as porters who carry tourist luggage; tour guides and agents; and as owners of tourist companies. This has somewhat helped to solve the problem of unemployment in the country.
  4. Improvement of infrastructure:For successful tourism business, good infrastructure is inevitable. The improved transport and communication infrastructures not only benefit the tourists, but it also benefits the local communities.
  5. Market for locally produced goods and services:The goods and services provided locally are sold to tourists or people engaged in tourism. Tourism, therefore, provides a ready market for agricultural produce and locally manufactured goods, such as sugar, cooking oil, and artefacts. This promotes trade as well as the development of local industries.
  6. Environmental conservation:Involvement of the local communities in the tourism industry has made it possible for these communities to participate in environmental conservation activities. The conserved environment benefits all people residing around and away from these tourist attractions. For example, forest conservation reduces the problem of green house effect and global warming, an act that is beneficial to the general community.
  7. Strengthening of international relations:Tourism helps to strengthen the relationship between Tanzania and the mother countries of the visitors. This improves understanding and cooperation.
  8. Source of foreign exchange:It is estimated that tourism generates 25% of Tanzania’s foreign exchange. With increased promotion and establishment of new tourist sites, the figure may increase in future. This, in turn, improves the country’s economy and hence the living standards of her people
Problems Facing Tourism Industry in Tanzania
Identify problems facing tourism industry in Tanzania
Problems facing the tourism industry in Tanzania include:
  1. Poor transport and communication:Transport and communication infrastructures are still in a very poor state. Many tourist attractions are in remote areas but the roads connecting them from major urban centres are very poor. This makes the attraction sites accessible only in some months of the year. The roads are very uncomfortable to drive on. Access to communication services, such as internet is also difficult and expensive wherever available. This tends to discourage the tourists to visit attractions located in remote areas.
  2. Poor marketing:The tourist attractions in the country have not been well advertised to local and international tourists, hence most of them are unknown. Very little effort has been put to market the industry worldwide via mass media and forums.
  3. Human encroachment:The ever increasing human population has led to encroachment on national parks and game reserves. This threatens the wildlife in their natural habitats.
  4. Limited capital:Tanzania is a very poor country with a very poor economy. Much of her revenue is directed towards provision of social services such that very little capital is left to be invested in other sectors of the economy including the development of tourism industry.
  5. Poor coordination policies:There is poor coordination on matters concerning tourism between the government and stakeholders in the industry. The lack of proper coordination on polices and marketing, among other issues, hinders the development of the industry.
  6. Crime:High crime rates in tourist attraction areas discourage tourists from visiting these areas. This makes the industry lack the much needed income, thereby hampering its development.
  7. Poaching:Poaching in Tanzania is at alarming levels. This is one of the major problems affecting wildlife conservation. Many animals are killed by armed poachers each year for trophies, especially elephant tusks. The problem has led to extinction of some animals such as the white rhinoceros, some birds and animals. The number of elephants in the parks has drastically reduced in recent years following poaching.
  8. Competition:There is a stiff competition from other countries with the same attractions, which are more developed and have a good set up of tourist facilities in terms of transport and infrastructure, more comfortable and cheap hotels, favourable climate and ample communication facilities.
  9. Language:Very few people employed in the tourist industry can speak many of a range of foreign languages apart from English and French. Therefore, failure to master different languages creates a communication barrier between the locals and the tourists.
Methods Used to Increase the Income of Tourism Industry in Tanzania
Explain methods used to increase the income of tourism industry in Tanzania
Ways of increasing income from the tourism industry include:
  1. Marketing and publicity:The government and other stakeholders must put more efforts in advertising tourist attractions found in the country so as to attract many tourists to visit them. This will, in turn, increase the government revenue and the money obtained from the tourism industry will be invested in tourism development and improvement of social services.
  2. Promotion of domestic tourism:In spite of the government’s efforts to promote domestic tourism, participation of the locals in visiting tourist attractions is still very low. The government through the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources has an obligation to further advertise and promote domestic tourism so as to encourage more locals to visit tourist attractions. This undertaking can be achieved through reducing the gate fees into game parks, game reserves and other attractions for local tourists.
  3. Package tours:Package tour or package holiday consists of transport and communication advertised and sold together by a vendor known as tour operator. Other services may be provided such as a rental car, activities or outings during the holiday. Package holidays are organised by a tour operator and sold to a consumer by a travel agent. Some travel agents are employees of tour operators, others are independent.Package tours are affordable and less taxing to the tourists. Organising such tours will encourage more people to visit since they are cheap and most of the organising is done by a company.
  4. Expanding tourist industry:New tourist attractions like coastal areas and lakes should be opened and developed so as to attract more visitors to visit the country. Tanzania has already started developing the coastal areas into tourist centres. Also archaeological and cultural centres should be developed. There are many of such centres in Tanzania but they have not yet been fully developed and advertised to potential tourists.
  5. Training of tourism personnel:Tourism is a service industry and the tourists must get the quality service for the money they spend. When they get better services they are more likely to visit again. It is therefore important to have trained personnel who are capable of offering the best services. Tourism courses are offered at universities and colleges.
  6. Improvement of infrastructures:The existing transport and communication infrastructures are not yet sufficiently developed to offer the quality services to tourists. There is need to improve the existing infrastructures, together with construction of the new ones. Improved and quality infrastructures will encourage more tourists to visit the country and hence increase the revenue gained from the industry.
  7. Improvement of safety and security:Safety and security to tourists is a very important aspect in development of tourism. Measures should be taken to prevent any sort of crime around tourist centres and in the whole country. This will influence the tourists to visit Tanzania as they will be sure of their personal and property safety.
  8. Controlling poaching:Poaching reduces the number of game and may lead to extinction of some wildlife species. Because wildlife is the major attraction to tourists visiting the country, more game wardens, rangers, and guards should be deployed to combat poaching activities in game parks and reserves. The government should employ more game protection personnel and equip them with appropriate weapons to fight against poachers.
Lessons to Promote Tourism Industry in Tanzania
Discuss the lessons that can be drawn to promote tourism industry in Tanzania
How to promote tourism in Tanzania
  1. The ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, through Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB), must promote Tanzania’s tourist attractions through conducting publicity campaigns, preparation and publication of destination brochures and provision of tourist information.
  2. Improvement and development of transport and communication infrastructures, particularly in areas with tourist attractions, in order to make these attractions accessible from the town centres.
  3. Tourism resources such as national parks and game reserves should be protected from human encroachment. Also the environment on which the animals thrive, such as natural vegetation and water resources should be conserved.
  4. There is need to identify and develop tourist attractions and improve the existing ones so as to diversify the tourist activities. Special emphasis should be put on improvement of pre-historical and archaeological sites, most of which are in very poor states.
  5. The level of hospitality to tourists must be improved through training of the tourism personnel so as to meet the world’s standards.
  6. Attracting both local and foreign investors to put up facilities such as hotels, motels, lodges, etc. for tourists.
  7. The political stability, peace and tranquillity should be maintained to ensure maximum security to tourists.



« Prev Post

No comments:

Post a Comment