Sunday, January 8, 2023


  Eli-express       Sunday, January 8, 2023


This is the study of differences or variations or language style which depends on the situation in which the language is used and the effect the user wishes to create on the person he is addressing (addressee). It is important to understand the following key words in the definition above.


This refers to the different forms of the same language that are known or used. Any different form of the same language is called a variety.


This refers to this non- linguistic variable which makes the user choose a certain variety as appropriated, for example the relationship existing between a user and addressee may cause the user to choose a variety which he finds to be appropriated.


When we intend to create a good relationship with another person and therefore solicited a prompt favorable reaction we may use a polite language.

However if we are at a higher position over another person we may revert to a commanding language to ensure that things are done promptly e.g. a police inspector to a recruit.


There are 2 major types of variations of language;

a. Variation according to user(Dialect)

This is causes by people belong to a particular place or class in a large geographical or social scale.

b. Variation according to use(Register)

This is the variation that is caused by the condition placed on the user due to use the underlying situation.

Language variations according to user

The characteristics of a user may cause language variations. This is so especially when we compare users to the same language but from two
different circumstances. These lead to detect and accents.

i. Dialect

A dialect is language variety distinguished from another by differences of vocabularies and grammar. It is usually defined as variation of language which contains typical idiosyncratic features which particular to any individual, peace and social class.

A variety of language used by people from a certain geographical setting is called a regional dialect.

A variety of language used by a particular social group upper class or lower class educated or uneducated is called sociologist.

ii. Accent

An accent is the way a speaker pronounces a language in a way that speakers from a certain geographical area do e.g. British accent, American accent. It is a way of pronouncing the words of a language that shows which country or area a person comes from

Language variation according to use

The use for a language must choose the language elements and structure to fit in the situation requires, these varieties of language resulting from different use are called register.

The following are the names of registers according to the use;

Field of discourse (domain)

This refers to an area of operation where the language activity takes place. This is basically the subject matter of the speech activity it could be agriculture, physics History or Geography etc.

The subject matter determines whether to use technical or non technical language.

For example: in a medical seminar, a wide range of medical vocabularies and other medical technical terms will be expected to be used.

The language choice will be more formal and language construction would therefore be expected to have longer sentences.

Mode of discourse (medium)

This refers to the medium of language activity we therefore get the written and oral modes. The difference of the two is that the written language is more organized with careful punctuation and sentence structures shine the oral language will be expected to be less organized with gap fillers pauses hesitations slips of the tongue ellipsis etc.

Tenor of discourse  ( status)

This refers to the relationship between user and addressee (s) it is in this that use distinguishes between polite and impolite language or formal and informal styles. Involving temporary causes permanent or intimate forms of relationship manner which one behaves.

Styles of registers identified in stylistics

i. Consultative/common core/basic style: Spoken anywhere at any times even a stranger while seeking information.

Example of dialogue


Caro:    Muumuu excuse me miss

Stranger:  Yes, may I help you?

Caro:    Yes I can’t seem to find the PPF tower

Stranger:   Oh! Actually we are standing right opposite to it

Caro (smiling): oh oh, I see one

Caro:  Thank you

ii. Casual

Among friends.

Example of dialogue

Noreen speaking to her friend Irene through the phone

Irene:             what’s up girl, tell me,

Noreen:          You tell me

Irene:              Girl please I call you and you get nothing to say

Noreen:          Well I didn’t ask you to call me

Irene:              Ha ah…. okay goodbye.

iii. Intimate

Spoken to more friendly /close partners e.g. Married couples

Wife:              Baby please takes the kids to school

Husband:        Thought that was your responsibility wife stares at him then says “but am tired sweetly”

Husband:         I always tell you not to look at me like that when you ask for something

Wife:              (smiles) I don’t do it on purpose you know

Husband:        Yes right, fine i will take them

Wife:               Love you mean it
Husband:      Love you too

iv. Formal

Official, proper grammar

Example of dialogue      

At the Transform office, Mbezi

Bundala:                    Cecy would you bring me those files

Cecy:                         Yes, boss

(She takes them in Bundala’s office)

Bundala:                     I need you to make a call to Neringo and have him meet me at 12:00 noon sharp.

Cecy:                         Yes boss

(She departs)

Other characteristics of formal language

i. Proper punctuations
ii. Proper Grammar
iii.Use of more polished vocabulary

E.g. poor health – impoverished

Go down – descend

iv. Frozen style

This is used in particular field of discourse such as literature, religion and law. It is called frozen because it is usually never affected by changes as it retains its features.

In the field of literature, the frozen style is mostly found in poetry than in prose. In religion, it is shown by the use of special religion terminologies and archaism. In law, it is indicated by the use of legal terms. Search style is always familiar to the people who use it always.

Other terms used

Various features constitute some peculiar features which make them be treated as varieties to be labelled, these include;

STANDARD VARIETY (Standard dialect or language)

This language variety has the highest status in the community or nation. It is a kind which is usually based on the speech or writing or of educated nature language speaker. A standard variety is generally used in the news, media and literature. It is the variety found in dictionaries and grammar and is taught in schools and to foreign learners of the language in question.


This is the one that is marked by serious deviations from the so called standard spoken variety. It is characterized by wrong pronunciations and grammar sometimes with wrong pronunciation and grammar, infect it may have wrong language uses.


This is the informal use of words and expressions that are more common in spoken language, especially by a given group of people. Slags are always new, flashy and popular words which are usually short lived in terms of use.

It is normally used in familiar talk among peer groups but is not accepted as good language. When spoken or written language. The central reason for use of slang is desire for novelty, vivid emphasis for being knowledgeable, being up with times or a little ahead.

Example of such words include

Crib – cheat

Contract – order to kill someone

Dough – money

Peg out –die


These are words or expressions which are used by a particular profession or group of people, and are difficult for others to understand. It is therefore a language of a special group profession or activity.

It is usually compared with a ling in fact, any speech that sounds strange to people who do not understand it while it is well understood by people of the special profession as doctors, lawyers and other scientists is associated to jargon.


This is a word or phrase used instead of another which is deemed to be embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable. It is used to make speech less harsh or unpleasant example the word “pass away” for die short call for pee etc

Situations calling for different language varieties

a.Write a press release to the Tobacco farmers at Tabora together with their Agricultural officers concerning a disease affecting their crop and how to combat it.

b.A play written to encourage farmers at Mwika to plant more coffee due to its profitability.

In (a) we are going to use Formal language – official
-proper grammar

– Standard language – has high status in community or nation

– Language should incite the awareness of the disease, its causes, effects and ways to   combat it.

In (b) Language should be simple.

Casual – to farmers talking

Formal – If it involves official scenarios such as a meeting and someone with facts is addressing the people.

Persuasive – the fact coffee is likely to bring profit.


Study the Dialogue below

Setting      :  Vulage

Characters :  Atu




Rwega   :    Waguma

Swega    :     Are you from the farm?

Uswedi   :    No am from taking Rubisi

Rwega    :    at this farming time

Uswedi   :   Forming time!! What farming time are you talking about?

Rwega    :    I mean now shouldn’t you be pruning your coffee

Uswedi   :  ha ha ha man Rwega,I thought you were a very understanding man …everyone is complaining about the coffee does not full our packets

Rwega    :  Uswedi my friend, we are fast reluctant to implement what our officers tell us.

Wane/Atu:  hallo

Uswedi    : Hallo

Rwega     : where are you young beautiful ladies coming from?

Wane       : We are from SUA University we are here on field studies

Oswed     : ooh so your swat

Atu          :   Ha ha! yes, we are actually studying agricultural.

We happen to overhear your conversation may we could be of help.

Uswedi   :   Rwega your people (leaving)

Rwega    :   Uswedi where are you going let us hear from them

Wane      :  It seems your having problem with coffee farming, this matter can be resolved by just using the proper agricultural skill or technique.

Atu         :  My colleague is right, the only key to a better production   as sufficient technology.

Uswedi   :   sorry what do you mean by sufficient technology

Wane       :  It is applying the proper tools and methods which can help to yield high out puts for example this village has shortage of water but
coffee can be produced here, you can employ irrigation as a solution.

Atu          :  Not only that, but also employ perfect tools and not hand hoes thus by doing so you will be able to earn more output considering the fact
that coffee is very profitable.

Rwega      :  I think you have very good ideas and i think it’s the right time to plan a seminar so that all Mwika coffee farmers will be aware.


The term communication is defined as follows;
a).  Communication Is the exchange of information and understanding between parts.
b).  Communication is the process of transferring of information and understanding between parts.
c).  Communication is a transferring of information between parts, from a source or sender to a receiver through media.

From the above definitions communication is characterized by the following;

  • Communication is the process not an event; it is something that takes the form of continuity.
  • Communication is the two way process. It involves exchange of position or a role between a sender and receiver.
  • Communication become complete where there is a feedback (Information from a receiver to a sender).
  • Communication involves exchange of information (intangible things) and not goods. Sending of tangible things called transport/transportation and not communication.
  • Communication requires medium (language) and channels.
  • Communication is not rarely sending but also understanding between parts is the communication process.

Tools or means of communication and categories into

a). Verbal tools (language)
b). Non verbal tools e.g. Body language, sign, signals e.g. Traffic light, colours etc. Therefore the major tools communication is languages.


The term model is used to refer to a diagram or pictorial representation of a certain idea, fact or process.Therefore communication model is a diagramic or pictorial representation of a communication process more specifically communication is a representation of a verbal linguistic communication process.

Communication model

–Speaker  or                  –spoken or         –Television           –Listener or

– Writer                           – Written            – Radio                  – Reader

– Dialogue etc.

From the above model a message originate from a person who is called encoder or sender, then the sender selects a language e.g. (English and Swahili) and it’s from spoken or written. Then a sender selects channels or means methods for message transition.

Finally the message reaches the receiver who decodes (interprets the message into understandable idea or thought, finally the receiver again select a medium and channels and sends a feedback to original speaker making a communication process.

Guide Questions

With the aid of communication model explain how communication takes place in human language.


Communication breakdown or failure is a situation or circumstance intended message timely and effectively. It entails the following situation or circumstances;

i. Failure of a message to reach the intended/targeted destination Receiver.
ii. A message is misunderstanding by receiver.
iii. A message arrives to the right receiver but not timely (arrives late) and therefore it become useless.
iv. Message passed through a wrong medium or channels.
v. Sender sends a wrong message e.g. Rumors.


There are several negative effect of communication breakdown some of them include;

  • Conflict fight /war/misunderstand.
  • Hatred/hostility and anger against one to another.
  • Lack of trust and existence of suspicion.
  • Destabilizing sociology-economic activities.
  • In a learning process, teachers and students fail to understand each other. Hence failure in academy, It is also the source of strikes and boycott in schools and colleges etc.


Effective communication is a cure to communication failure/breakdown were quite certain special skills so that we avoid the above dangerous or risks. These skills are referred to as communication skills. Communication skills are fundamental to effective communication.

Definition of effective communication

Effective communication can be defined as;

a) A careful and timely sending/transferring of right information and total understanding between parts.
b) Is the process of sending right information through right media and channels to the right receiver at the right time.


The factors that influences effective communication is the same (if received that can lead to communication breakdown
These factors are categorized into
a) Linguistic factors
b) Psychological factors
c) Environment factors
d) Social or cultural factors


These are language related factors. They include
i) Proper pronunciation.
ii) Use of language according to the level of the audience.
iii) Use of right/ appropriate register or style depending on the field of study or area of  specialization e.g.: science, law, literature.
iv) Use of appropriate dialect common to the audience.
v) Being clear and use of common language avoid using bombastic words and unnecessary vocabularies.


These are factors associated with attitude interest, perceptions and only other feelings of the sender or receiver of message.

They include the following;

i) Avoid being judgment or biased. We should not judge people’s personality. Status or history but the message they give us. That is we should not judge a book by its
cover but by its contents.
ii) We are advised to cultivate interest when we intend to communicate (to say write, read or listen) this promotes effective communication.
iii) Psychological preparation is important when we want to communicate we have to come down from anger or emotions otherwise we may fail to communicate effectively.
NB: Tensions frustrations, anger, hatred emotions etc do affect our communication and therefore causing communication breakdown.


These are factors related to beliefs, traditions, ideology, customs and norms. During communication one has to be sensitive or aware of these issues so as avoid offending others or create hostilities we need to be carefully and respect other people beliefs, ideologies, traditions customs and norms for active communication.


These are factors related to climate conditions and other environmental condition. They include
i) Noise
ii) Rainfall
iii) Wind
iv) Temperature (heat or coldness)
v) Psychological interruptions interference e.g. speech interfere, passing of people, vehicles or animals.
vi) Smell
vii) Dust and other climatic extremes
viii) Timing of information is also key to effective communication of the above are not carefully analyses e.g. we want to communicate, we may fact communicate effectively.

Advantage of effective communication

Effective communication has the following advantage
i) It promote unity, cooperation and solidarity in a society
ii) Effective communication promotes peace, security and order of disputes or conflict are discussed amicably and compromise is reached peaceful.
iii) It promotes social and economic development
iv) It facilitates understanding e.g. in education or learning process
v) Serves time
vi)Serves resources(financial capital)




« Prev Post

No comments:

Post a Comment