Friday, January 6, 2023


  Eli-express       Friday, January 6, 2023



International affair refers to the interactions between countries, which consist of self-interest strategies chosen by the states to safeguard their national interests both economically, socially, politically and technologically, so as to achieve goals within their international relations. The relations can be based on political, economic, diplomatic and culture relation among the nations.

It encompasses issues including International cooperation, among countries (both multilateral and bilateral one), the foreign policy, Globalization, Arbitration and reconciliation, world big powers and their role in maintaining world peace and understanding, as well as war against Terror.


International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states.

In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy, trade, and foreign policy—and relations with and among other international actors, such as intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), international legal bodies, and multinational corporations (MNCs).

International relations is widely considered a subdiscipline of political science. However, IR draws considerably upon international economics, international law, world history, and cultural anthropology. In the US, IR is frequently one of the sub-fields within political science departments, but some academic institutions characterize it as an independent or multidisciplinary .

While international politics has been analyzed throughout much of history, IR did not emerge as a discrete field until the turn of the 20th century, initially as an extension of political science; it was first distinguished as its own discipline in 1919, when it was offered as an undergraduate major by Aberystwyth University in the United Kingdom. Over the next decade, similar studies were established at the University of Oxford and London School of Economics, which led the field to develop its independence and prominence.


After the Second World War, international relations burgeoned in both importance and scholarship—particularly in North America and Western Europe—partly in response to the geostrategic concerns of the Cold War.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent rise of globalization in the late 20th century presaged new theories and evaluations of the rapidly changing international system[disambiguation needed.

Into the 21st century, as connections between states become progressively more complex and multifaceted, international relations has been incorporated into other fields, such as economics, law, and history, leading to a convergent, interdisciplinary field.



The countries may form relations to safeguard their interests basing on various areas such as the following; –

Political relation; Is the cooperation whereby the two or more independent state share ideas above political matters

Diplomatic relation; Is the level of international relation whereby different embassies are involved in structuring political, economic, social and cultural matters within their home countries and the lost countries.
A diplomat is a person who officially represents his/her own country in a foreign country.

Cultural relation; among the nations can be started in various form like the exchange of dances troops, theater groups, Musician and also sports and games. e.g. through world cup, UEFA, Kagame Cup, FA Cup etc. different nations come together and compete. This situation develops strong culture relation.

Economic relation; Is the situation whereby two or more independent states share economic activities e.g. International trade. There are four forms of economic relations. These are free trade area, customs union, common market and economic union.



There are several forms of economic relations basing on the king of relation countries have chosen to enter. The following are the types;

A free trade area

This is a type of economic relation in which the member countries agree to eliminate trade restrictions such as tariffs, import and export quotas, which hinder free movement of goods and services, etc. in this form of economic relation, each member is free to establish independent tariffs (taxes on imports) against non member country

A custom union

This is the type of economic relation whereby the members have a common tariff against the non member countries

A common market

at this stage of economic relations, member countries establish common tariff against non member states but there is a free movement of goods and services among the member countries, i. e. capital and labour are free to move.

An economic union

This is a form of economic relations whereby member countries allow free movement of goods and services and at the same time institute joint ownership of certain enterprises and all economic policies are harmonized. E. g. enterprises like roads, railways, etc are jointly being carried out.


The contemporary countries of the world are no longer isolated from other on matters which are occurring in the planet earth. They share some socio- cultural values which are good or bad depending on the moral judgment of the given country, but also shares policies, law and regulations.

This interconnectedness have been influenced with an improved science and technology coupled with an improved communication and information technologies such as internet use, television, fax, cellular phones and others. The technological improvements have eliminated distance, geographical barriers, and socio- cultural barriers, henceforth; the global local interconnectedness has become possible.


Globalization is an increase of interconnectedness among people in the world that expands and accelerates the movement of people to far distances across borders, including exchange of ideas, culture and commodities over the vast distance

Globalization is the situation whereby the globe has interconnected in term of information and communication technology and hence what is happening in one place is easily recognized in other place, consequently, it is caused the planet earth to look like a small village.

Generally globalization can simply be defined as the process of increasing interconnectedness in policies, ideas and culture between one country and other. This   inter connectedness have been enhanced with development of science and technology and so forth.

Historical background of Globalization

The interconnection and contact of the world population can be traced in several centuries in the past. The interconnection was through physical contact among of the world population. There are three phases which made people to come together in historical perspectives as follows.

The first phase was during mercantilism period

This can be traced back between the 11th to 16thcenturies. In this period the merchants who were the Portuguese like Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Fernando Po and Bartolommeo Diaz visited various parts of the world with the sake of trade. These parts included Africa, North and South America, Asia and Caribbean island. Besides other European merchants participated in this trade by collecting some commodities such as gold, Silver, spices and slaves. These early traders stimulated shifting of Africans as slaves and took them in the new world. Under this system the interconnectedness of people all over the world was possible.

The second phase of integration was during colonialism period

Colonialism came after scramble and ultimately partition of Africa at Berlin in 1884/85 .During this period the whole continent of Africa was divided into sphere of influence (colonies) by imperialist countries .These countries included Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, France, Dutch (Holland) just mention a few .Thus, all Colonies became connected to the Capitalist system, the policies which were impacted in the metropolitan impacted also in the colonies. The crisis which faced the masters like great depression (1939- 1945) the first world war (1914-1918) and the second world war (1939 – 1945) fought by  masters but incorporated their colonies as well. This was also the second phase on which the world integrated.

The third phase has been induced by development of science and technology

This phase started in 1990’s on which the modern science and technology has innovated especially an information technology which include use of e- Mail, Internets, Television set, cell phones and so forth .These have motivated the movement of people globally from one  place to another ,facilitated development of trade and great interconnectedness in some globe policies .Besides, refugees migration from African continent to Europe and within Africa continent has magnified in the   near past years. These have contributed people all over the world to share some policies, culture, education, Arts, Language and traditions and general understanding.

How globalization has influenced social, political and economic reforms in Tanzania.

As the results of integrated policies many developing countries particularly Tanzania came with some reforms. These reforms were to comply with globalization demands.

The following are some reforms among many

Structural Adjustment programs (SAPs).

This was introduced by world financial institutions like the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund in 1980 to restructure the economy of third world countries. This was due to the fact that the third world countries inflicted with economic problems like decline of Per-capital Income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For most of sub-Saharan African countries between 1980 to 1987 the GDP declined by 20% and 4.7% respectively, increase of external debt, impoverishment of health facilities including dispensary and health centers and falling of education standard in all levels of education system. Thus, SAPS came to restructure the economy through improving the provision of social services; Tax reform and elimination of barriers on trade, devaluation of currencies just mention a few.

Privatization of public sector.

Privatization refers to transferring assets and activities of the public sectors to be run by the private sectors or Individuals. These policy was introduced in 1980 by the world Bank and international monetary fund together with donor countries like France, USA, Denmark and Germany .The role of privatization policy was to increase efficient of economic sectors and restructure the condition which existed in developing countries .The major goals were to enhance access to foreign markets, Capital and technology through attracting managerial and technological resources from  private sector to reduce an overwhelming and challenging increase of public debt and so forth.

Economic, social and political liberalization.

Many Africa countries and Tanzania in particular liberalized their economic, social and political status of their countries. Economically, the rate of foreign investment, operation of international trade through import and export, could be done through elimination of trade barriers such as tax, tariff and other embargoes. Politically there was introduction of multiparty in many developing countries, the main goals were to improve democracy through institutionalizing democratic principles, but also stimulating people participation in decision making and elimination all forms of dictatorship which existed before .Apart from  introduction of multiparty  also some pressure groups and civil societies were to be institutionalized ,these include Civil Based Organization (CBO) and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO’s).These have been responsible in addressing social problems like abuse of human right, women violence ,sexual abuse and others .It is liberalization which have stimulated  developing countries to adopt and assimilate the western polices and integrate  them in internal affairs


Was also one among of the reform of Globalization .This enforced by the donor countries together with world financial institution .It called upon some developing countries including Tanzania to reduce the number of workers from public offices. This was done to reduce the government spending in 1990’s. It consequently, caused unemployment of many Tanzania henceforth decline of standard of living.

However, many reforms have been done by Tanzania to adjust itself in the wave of globalization. Many impacts have came in because of these reforms including unemployment, introduction of new culture, introduction of western value in our environment, International trade imbalance, new-colonialism and the burden of debt.

Impacts of globalization in Tanzania

Globalization has led to several impacts in Tanzania both positive and negative, the impacts are as follows:-

Positive Impacts

Led utilization of resources through free market economy, liberalization and privatization policies these includes forest, wildlife, minerals, land and generally Tanzanian.

It has enhanced employment for the qualified personnel. This is because private institutions encourage an employment for the qualified workers in marketing, finance, human resources, technical matters and health service.

Transfer of science and technology through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has become possible. The companies and individuals have allowed investing in various sectors on which they have imported science and technology example use of machines, computer and other devices which have enhanced the utilization of resources.

It has ruled out some bad practices (culture) which are condemned by International agencies these include Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), women oppression, witchcraft and violence against women .This is because these practices cannot induces the civilization of the people.

Globalization has made diffusion of belief and value about broader issues on international concerns. For example value on environment protection, human nights observance and gender issues have been institutionalized by a country like Tanzania.

Globalization swept cultural boundaries through development of information and communication technology like internet, fax machines, satellites and cable television (Digital Television).This has managed to integrate all cultural practices in the world and have cultural vision for the present and future generation.

Negative Impacts

Globalization compelled to unemployment for an unqualified people .This was through redundancy of workers in 1980’s.

Stimulates environmental degradation, this has been motivated with various investment done by foreign companies in Industries, mining sector, transport and communication as well as agriculture sector .Foreign Direct investment ( FDI) has caused deforestation, soil erosion and pollutions which subsequently  contributes to Global warming and climatic changes  in

Globalization has induced the distortion of indigenous culture and values .The cultural decay has been experienced in Tanzania such as drug abuse ,gays and lesbian, indecent dressing style, table manner, embracement of western songs, ceremonies like wedding and burial just mention a few.

Globalization has motivated over utilization of resources. Through privatization policies and direct foreign Investment have contributed to overuse of mineral potentialities especially Gold and Diamond, besides it has overexploited the Tanzanians who are working in these investments

Globalization has induced underdevelopment of economies in the third Word countries particularly Tanzania. This is because promotes elimination of tariffs, tax and embargoes to the imports. it is also discourage the local industries because some imported goods like clothes, electricity device, medicine and others are of great quality compared to  goods produced in our local industries, hence leads to  underdevelopment of our economies.

Globalization spearheads the operation of neo – colonialism, some policies are made by western nations which are to be implemented in LDC’s, these  include trade liberalization, devaluation of currencies and privatization just mention a few. These policies intend to benefit the donor countries, World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) but not the Developing countries (nations).

Thus, globalization has caused many impacts in Tanzania both positive and negative. Due to these impacts some policies to adopt, assimilate, manage and diffuse some of these effects should be put in place. For the positive ones should be used effectively for development of Tanzania and for the negative ones should be cross checked to avoid titanic disruption of Tanzania economy in the future.

Challenges of Globalization in Tanzania

The challenges of Globalization in Tanzania are many, but, this is due to the fact that Tanzania’s economy is infant coupled with devastating poverty as well as inefficient science and technology. Thus, it becomes difficult for Tanzania to cope with Globalization’s needs.

The national plan for implementation status of Brussels plan action identified the following challenges.

Inadequate financing in order to build productive capacities and thus to make globalization work or productive.

Lack of competitiveness, innovativeness, adherence to schedule and standard confidence to venture into neighboring countries’ market and overseas by Tanzania traders and other LDC’S is the challenge

Low accessibility to Information Communication Technology (ICT) due to low literacy rate, low income and limited number of services provider .Example, few Tanzania have accessibility to electronic mail, Internet, and cellular phones because of illiteracy and low income.

Low capacity of negotiation in international markets by Tanzanian due to lack of institutions for standardization and certification of commodities produced and exported by Tanzania.

Many African countries and particularly Tanzania, faces with problem of low saving and investment growth. Low saving and investments is common feature for some sub-Saharan countries. Without saving, affective individual capacity of banking investment will need to be decided by foreigners who prolong the problem of financial constraints.

Another challenge is that domestic revenue mobilization is still substantially low, relative to huge expenditure needs due to widespread of poverty .Thus, the government is challenged to create policies on how to expand the tax by capturing activities carried out in informal sectors which were promoted by globalization policies.

Poor Government policies incorporated with corruption also hinders smooth operation of International trade, movement of good, capital and people. Poor policies encourages unnecessary bureaucracy which stimulates some loopholes of corruption

Measures for the challenges of Globalization in Tanzania

Low productive capacities in the LDC’s as well as Tanzania will be lessened by provision of transport and communication services, Liberalization of business through motivating private investment and trade.

Building human and institution capacities through educating the citizens in order to cope with globalization needs.

Enhance the role of Trade in Development through introduction of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME’s), Development policies, and integrated industrial development programs.

Mobilization of financial resources through proper tax administration and persuasion on trade liberalization.

Develop training and research in agriculture through introduction of science and technology for quality and quantity of agricultural products. This will enhance the operation of International trade and independent economy of Tanzania as a whole.

The world financial institutions like the World Bank and International monetary fund (IMF) and other donors should help the poor countries by providing them with some loans, grants and aid with minimum or no conditions. This is due to the fact that the donors and some World financial institutions have been giving some aid, grant and loans at very difficult conditionality.

Countries in LDC is particularly Tanzania should create own strategies policies and philosophies for own development and cope with challenges of Globalization not depending on policies and strategies made by western countries.




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