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 A primary curriculum is a framework that structures what a school sets out to teach its pupils. In this way, it covers the skills, knowledge, attitude and values, laying out the theory, product and practice. Therefore, we often refer to it as a set of learning goals.

Best Curriculum For Schools Service Sector.
  • Active and Process/Product Based Learning.
  • Reflective Learning.
  • Social Learning.
  • Inquiry-Based Learning.
  • Integrated and Interdisciplinary learning.
  • Research and Referral.
  • Out of the Box thinking.

 The Tanzanian educational system operates on the 7-4-2-3 system: 7 years of primary school, followed by 4 years of secondary school (Ordinary Level) leading to 2 years of Advanced Level. After the 13th year of secondary school students may take the Advanced Certificate exam and attend college for 3 to 4 years.

 In education, a curriculum  curricula  or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process The term often refers specifically to a planned sequence of instruction, or to a view of the student's experiences in terms of the educator's or school's instructional goals. A curriculum may incorporate the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives Curricula are split into several categories: the explicit, the implicit (including the hidden), the excluded, and the extracurricular.

Curricula may be tightly standardized or may include a high level of instructor or learner autonomy.Many countries have national curricula in primary and secondary education, such as the United Kingdom's National Curriculum.

UNESCO's International Bureau of Education has the primary mission of studying curricula and their implementation worldwide. 

 Types of curricula

Under some definitions, curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard.

A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education. For example, an elementary school might discuss how its curricula is designed to improve national testing scores or help students learn fundamental skills. An individual teacher might also refer to his or her curriculum, meaning all the subjects that will be taught during a school year. The courses are arranged in a sequence to make learning a subject easier. In schools, a curriculum spans several grades.

On the other hand, a high school might refer to their curricula as the courses required in order to receive one's diploma. They might also refer to it in exactly the same way as an elementary school and use it to mean both individual courses needed to pass as well as the overall offering of courses, which help prepare a student for life after high school.

A curriculum can be seen from different perspectives. What societies envisage as important teaching and learning constitutes the "intended" curriculum. Since it is usually presented in official documents, it may be also called the "written" or "official" curriculum. However, at a classroom level this intended curriculum may be altered through a range of complex classroom interactions, and what is actually delivered can be considered the "implemented" curriculum. What learners really learn (i.e. what can be assessed and can be demonstrated as learning outcomes or competencies) constitutes the "achieved" or "learned" curriculum. In addition, curriculum theory points to a "hidden" curriculum (i.e. the unintended development of personal values and beliefs of learners, teachers, and communities; the unexpected impact of a curriculum; or the unforeseen aspects of a learning process). Those who develop the intended curriculum should have all these different dimensions of the curriculum in view. While the "written" curriculum does not exhaust the meaning of curriculum, it is important because it represents the vision of the society. The "written" curriculum is usually expressed in comprehensive and user-friendly documents, such as curriculum frameworks or subject curricula/syllabi, and in relevant and helpful learning materials, such as textbooks, teacher guides, and assessment guides

In some cases, people see the curriculum entirely in terms of the subjects that are taught, and as set out within the set of textbooks, and forget the wider goals of competencies and personal development. This is why a curriculum framework is important. It sets the subjects within this wider context, and shows how learning experiences within the subjects need to contribute to the attainment of the wider goals.

Curriculum is almost always defined with relation to schooling.According to some, it is the major division between formal and informal education. However, under some circumstances it may also be applied to informal education or free-choice learning settings. For instance, a science museum may have a "curriculum" of what topics or exhibits it wishes to cover. Many after-school programs in the US have tried to apply the concept; this typically has more success when not rigidly clinging to the definition of curriculum as a product or as a body of knowledge to be transferred. Rather, informal education and free-choice learning settings are more suited to the model of curriculum as practice or praxis.



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  1. This piece on CURRICULUM FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION STANDARD I - VII- was helpful. Thank you for sharing this invaluable knowledge. From this piece I have learnt that a country may have several types of curricular that may include the written or formal one. I was wondering if we have one in Tanzania that covers secondary school education. Will appreciate if I get one. Thanks


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