History is a study of past, present and future events of a particular period, country or subject pertaining to human activities. Generally, history is all about studying the past events to understand the present situation in order to predict the future events.

Civics is the study of theoretical and practical aspects of citizenship, their rights and duties to each other and to the Government. It involves the study of people’s way of life including political and cultural aspects such as education processes, religion, election processes, customs and language. It aims at providing people with important skills like leadership skills among many others. Civics is all about people’s political, social and cultural life.

Geography is the study of places and the relationship between people and their environment. Geographers explore both the physical properties of the Earth's surface and the human societies spread across it.In the context of dynamic and changing world, it is very crucial to study Geography so as to be able to achieve sustainable human development.

Physics is a branch of Science that investigates and explains the different aspects of nature and how nature behaves. It involves the study of interactions between matter and energy. It uses concepts such as; forces, energy, mass and motion to explain how things happen around us. Physics uses measurement and experimental procedures to test observation in order to come up with desired results.

Chemistry is all around us. Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Any reaction taking place in body cells of all living and non living organisms correlates with chemistry. In chemistry we study materials that make up the earth and universe. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology. Therefore, when talking about chemistry, we are referring to life on Earth.

Biology is derived from two Greek words, that is, bios which means life and logos or logia which means study or knowledge. Aspects of biological science range from the study of molecular mechanisms in cells, to the classification and behaviour of organisms, how species evolve and the interaction of ecosystems. Biology often overlaps with other related applied and natural sciences such as agriculture, medicine, physics, chemistry, and astronomy. Biology, therefore, refers to the study of life.

English Language is a course taught in both primary and secondary schools in Tanzania. There are various topics taught in English Language with an intention of sharpening listening skills, speaking skills, reading skills and writing skills of the learners. The four skills are essential for teaching and learning in other subjects as well as communication in general.

A group of related sciences, including algebra, geometry, and calculus, concerned with the study of number, quantity, shape, and space and their interrelationships by using a specialized notation

Kiswahili ni Lugha ya kibantu; inatumika kama lugha ya taifa au rasmi katika baadhi ya mataifa ya Afrika Mashariki na Kati kama vile Tanzania, DRC, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda na Uganda. Hadi hivi sasa lugha ya Kiswahili inakadiriwa kuzungumzwa na watu zaidi ya milioni 60 duniani kote. Mataifa mengine ya Afrika yanayozungumza Kiswahili ni pamoja na Comoro, Zambia, Malawi na Msumbiji. Kiswahili pia kinazungumzwa katika baadhi ya nchi za Kiarabu kama vile Yemen, UAE n.k

Bookkeeping is the recording, on a day-to-day basis, of the financial transactions and information pertaining to a business. It ensures that records of the individual financial transactions are correct, up-to-date and comprehensive. Accuracy is therefore vital to the process.

Commerce is the conduct of trade amongst economic agents. Generally, commerce refers to the exchange of goods, services or something of value, between businesses or entities. From a broad perspective, nations are concerned with managing commerce in a way that enhances the well-being of citizens, by providing jobs and producing beneficial goods and services.

Is the ability of an individual to apply his/her mental and physical power to control the environment. It involves things like thinking, playing and implementation so as to solve social, political, economic and culture problems. These skills are the ability to understand one self, build sound relationships with others, survive under difficult circumstances, act responsibly and safely, and solve problems. It addresses the balance between knowledge, attitude and skills.

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Strategies for answering exam and test questions

Click on the accordions below to see more information about how best to tackle the following question types in your exam.

Multi-choice questions

Things to remember about multi-choice questions

  • Read through the options and try to eliminate the ones that aren’t right. Multi-choice questions usually have one option that is obviously wrong, and three or four others that are similar.  It is important to look carefully at how they are worded in order to select the correct  answer.
  • Don’t struggle over a question. Do all of the easy questions first and come back to harder ones later to maximise efficient use of test/exam time.
  • Answer all the questions. Even if you are not sure, your educated guess may well be correct. It is better to have a go at answering a question than potentially miss out on a mark.
  • When you check back through your paper and think an answer is wrong - change the answer. Research indicates that you will probably be correct in doing so.

Short answer questions

Short answer questions range from a sentence or two through to a paragraph in length.

  • Keep to the point. Short answers are usually two-three sentences.
  • Main ideas. Your answers should incorporate the key points, words, ideas and phrases the marker will be looking for.
  • Leave one or two lines after each answer. This is so you can add important points later on.
  • Try to answer all the questions.  If you don’t know the complete answer, put down what you do know, as this is likely to get you some marks.

Exam essay questions

The advice here is in four parts: Time allocation | Task analysis | Planning | Presentation

Time allocation
  • Use the reading time at the start of the exam to choose which essay questions you will answer.
  • Check how much time you might have to answer each essay question, and stick to it. You can come back and add more to your answer in your revision time at the end of the exam session.
  • If you haven’t finished your answer, jot down the rest in note form. This will show the marker what you know, and you might get some marks for it.
Task analysis
  • Read the question carefully.
  • Underline or highlight the content words. What is the topic?
  • Pick out the instruction words in the question, e.g. identify, describe, compare and contrast, evaluate. What are you being asked to do with the topic?
  • Take some time to think and plan your answer. For example: use the reading time to select which essay questions you will answer. Then use the start of the writing time (5-20mins) to make notes of all the points you remember that are relevant to the essay.
    General guide for timing: for 30 minutes of writing, allow 5-7 minutes for planning.
  • Plan out the structure by organising your points into a logical order:e.g. by numbering them according to intended sequence.
  • General writing rule for exam essays - one paragraph = one point. Follow standard essay-writing procedure, e.g. start with a topic sentence that contains your key point, and then support this with examples, explanations, and evidence.
  • Make sure your handwriting is legible. Markers should not have to decipher your handwriting. If your handwriting is illegible, it could compromise your marks.
  • Make sure that you can express ideas effectively in terms of sentence structure and word use.  Incoherent sentences and incorrect terminology will likely result in the marker not being able to understand your answer properly.
  • Don’t worry too much about punctuation, grammar and spelling. Getting your ideas down is more important than ‘perfect’ writing (and markers usually take this into account given that students are writing under pressure in an exam situation). However, you do need a basic level of competency in these areas: an answer that lacks any punctuation and is full of spelling mistakes will probably be incoherent for the marker.
  • Don't waffle. Get straight to the point in terms of your answer so that you don’t waste time and word space on unessential or irrelevant detail. Planning your essay beforehand is key to avoiding waffle.

Problem solving questions

Usually these types of questions target formulae, steps in a process, or rules.

  • Make sure you write down relevant formulas, equations, and rules. Important: For numerical problems involving computation, make sure you include the appropriate mathematical units in your final answer (e.g. ml, m/sec).
  • Clearly show the steps you have taken in working out the answers.
  • If necessary, write notes to explain your answers.
  • Do the easier answers first, and return to the difficult ones later.



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