Tuesday, December 6, 2022


  e-SBO       Tuesday, December 6, 2022
The Form in A wreath for Fr Mayer
Analyse the form in A wreath for Fr Mayer
YEAR: 1997
  • FR.DENIS MOYO:A parishioner at Mkongo parish and a main character in the novel. He is caring,committed and good hearted. He cares about the health of other people. For example, he dealt effectively with the problem of cholera outbreak at Mkongo. He was well informed about the causes of cholera and measures which can be taken to alleviate the problem. He helped people to get rid of cholera. He did it by educating people the importance of boiling drinking water.He is an outstanding character due to his critical thinking and humanity.
  • BWANAPIMA:A witchdoctor at Mkongo village. He is a swindler and cheats people at Mkongo that he can cure cholera using traditional medicine. He is superstitious since he believes in magic power. He uses his magic power to earn income from illiterate villagers. He gets hens,cows and money from people to cure them. He is a very exploiting as he uses peoples’ problems and ignorance to get money from them.He tells people that he knows many traditional medicine. He likes money more than anything. He uses any possible way to get money. For example, he assisted Miteo to accomplish the mission of stealing cartons of medicine from Mkongo parish.
  • CHRISTOPHER MITEO:Bwanapima’s brother-in-law. Worked at Mkongo parish on behalf of the late Kalistus. He is portrayed as a thief. He was charged of Kalistus murder and theft. He admits that he is daring in crimes,plundering and robbing. He apologizes for committing murder and stealing. He is a dishonest character. He is a person not to be trusted. He caused the death of Kalistus due to his mission of stealing medicine at the parish.
  • PATRICK MILLINGA:A Ruvuma regional Police Commander(RPC). Portrayed as a cooperative, keen and diligent man. He cooperated with the Mkongo parishioners under Fr.Kafupi on the pending case of the murder of Kalistus when Insp.Mpangala failed to handle the matter. He is very attentive when listening to peoples’ problems.
  • YOMBAYOMBA:A chairman of Mkongo village. He is superstitious as he believes that magic power can assist him in his leadership. He consults the witchdoctor in whatever he wants to do. He is hypocritical since he pretends to be good and helpful when he sees that there is something to gain from the matter. He is an envious person. He wishes that some priviledge that other people have should be his. For example,he is envy of Kalistus’ work at the mission.
The form in Passed Like a Shadow
Analyse the form in Passed Like a Shadow
YEAR: 2006
This is a symbolic title which reflects the catastrophe that attacked the member of the two families, Adyeri’s family and David’s family. They all passed away like a vanishing shadow, except only one member of Adyeri’s family (Abooki) who survived the pandemic.
  • SETTING:The setting of novel “PASSED LIKE A SHADOW” is Western part of Uganda. The book was written during the end of Tanzania and Uganda war (1979).
  • PLOT:A chronological arrangement of events in the story. E.g. in “Passed like a shadow” the first chapter of the novel introduces Atwoki and Abooki. In chapter six and seven we are introduced to Atwoki as a famous footballer. Adyeri was brought back home serious sick, after few days he passes away. Atwoki becomes a victim; he wishes to die in Kitagwenda. The plot of this book is straight - forward narration.
  • Adyeri:He was the father of Atwoki and Abooki. He was a hot-tempered man and an irresponsible parent. He was a reputable womanizer. Due to his prostitution he was trapped by Birungi and at the end of the day he finds himself a victim. He passed away having passed through great suffering. His family isolated him and found himself alone.
  • Amoti:A short woman and very talkative. She was Atwoki and Abooki’s mother. She had a bad heart and could not forgive other people. A very responsible mother who fulfilled her duty as the mother of the family. She was not faithful in her marriage.
  • Atwoki:He was a talented footballer with expectations of becoming a superstar. He was a good lad and did not know the ways of the world. When he went to Kampala he was disfigured or persuaded by David to start engaging in sexual affairs with girls. He was a kind boy and forgave easily unlike his mother. He becomes a victim of HIV /AIDS as a result of engaging with prostitutes or harlots e.g Edda
  • Abooki:She was kind and an introvert. She took care of her mother when she was seriously sick on bed. She was raped by John and lost her virginity. When she tested for HIV /AIDS and pregnancy, she had negative results. She was optimistic and a good adviser.
  • Vicky:She was an orphan whose parents passed away long time ago. She tolerated mistreatment from her uncle and aunt but later on she ran away and got married to Aliganyira. She became a reputable prostitute as the result of peer pressure She was infected with HIV/AIDS and passed away.
  • Uncle Araali:He was a kind man who encouraged Atwoki to be a great footballer in future. He welcomed Abooki and Atwoki to live with them.
  • Aliganyira:He was Vicky‘s husband. He was a famous business man. He was famous and he was a womanizer. He was very superstitious. At the end, due to his prostitution he infected his wife (Vicky) with HIV.
  • Tusiimeand Kunihira:They were Vicky’s friends.They were secondary school rejects. They were prostitutes who earned their daily bread through selling their bodies. They convinced Vicky to sell her body since she was poor and received unfair treatment from her uncle and aunt.
  • David:Atwoki’s friend in kampala. He was the only son from a rich family. He was a University reject. He was a reputable prostitute and when Atwoki visited him in kampala, he taught him how to hunt for women. He infected girls expressively knowing that he was infected with HIV/AIDS. At the end, David’s family perish completely with HIV/AIDS.
  • Edda:She was a reputable harlot in kampala. She succeeded to corner Atwoki and infected him with HIV/AIDS.
  • John:He was a boy from a rich family. He used the loop hole of helping Abooki to trap her. He raped her when the girl paid a visit to his room.
  • Birungi:She was Adyeri’s secretary at St. Leo’s High School. She trapped Adyeri and cornered him. When he notices that Adyeri is bankrupt, she chased him away. At the end Birungi falls a victim of HIV/AIDS.
  • Jonathan:He was a counselor who used his knowledge of counseling to encourage Abooki. In the end, they fell in love.
Style is the technique used by the writer in writing his or her work. Style has to do with the ability of language by the writer,e.g. the use of figures of speech. Simple or complex language used by writer.
  • Hyperbole: E.g. -Abooki was in a nightmare. Dad gave him a classic slap. Amoti’s eye’s nearly popped out
  • Simile. Comparison of two objects which are unlike using “as” or “like”. e.g she walked towards him as a lioness (pg 3).He was as humble as a dove (pg 8)
  • Sayingse.g. life is not easy (pg 9)I have hit the jackpotMen are like buses (pg 6)
  • Personification. Eg. Amoti’s eye’s nearly popped out (pg 8)
  • Idioms. E.g. Amoti don’t have a hard heart (pg 28)
  • Imagination or imagery language is an art of author to create an image: E.g. His eye‘s popped out of his face.
  • Symbols: Eg I regret to have married a pigSlim- HIV/AIDS
The Form in Unanswered Cries
Analyse the form in Unanswered Cries
YEAR: 2002
The Novel “Unanswered cries” has the following characters:
  • OLABISI:The main character in the novel. She fought in opposition of circumcision. At the end she won the case and was not circumcised.
  • MAKALAY:Olabisi’s mother, she was educated yet she remained to be superstitious. She believed in women’s circumcision. To her, a clean and real woman is the one who is circumcised. The gorka (uncircumcised girl) was despised and isolated by the society.
  • ADE JONES:Olabisi’s father. He lives in Freetown with another women [OYAH]. He is fond of chasing skirts. He opposed her daughter to be circumcised and let the issue be settled in the court of law.
  • OYAH:Ade’s girlfriend in town. She is a lawyer by profession .She is a good woman since she loves Olabisi like her daughter. She won the case as Ade’s lawyer though on the other hand they were in a love relation.
  • DAUDA:Makalay’s second husband. He was wise since he did not support his wife on the issue of circumcising Olabisi.
  • EDDY:Olabisi’s boyfriend. He let the rat out of the sack about his relationship with Olabisi, hence betrayed his girlfriend.
  • RUGIATU AND SALAY:Daughters of Yah Posseh. They were badly beaten by Olabilisi at the well and later at the forest. They, like their mother, believe that a clean and real woman is the one who is circumcised.
  • AMADU:The hunter who collided with Olabisi in the forest. He believes in superstitions since he ties a big amulet on his hand. He betrayed Makalay since he let the girl go after being given money enough to buy two goats by Olabisi.
  • SALAAM SESAY:Makalay’s lawyer. He pleaded the case on the side of Makalay but at the end they lost the case. Regardless of his knowledge in law, he supported the bondo secret group on women’s circumcision.
  • YAH POSSEH:The leader of bondo secret group .She was superstitious and believed in spirits .She is believed to possess magic power and she is highly feared in the community.
  • DR.ASIATU:A gynaecologist who explained the disadvantages of women circumcision in the court.

Content in A wreath for Fr Mayer
Analyse content in A wreath for Fr Mayer
There are several themes found in this novel. Some of these themes arePoverty, superstition, social crimes, immorality, irresponsibility, role and position of religious institutions in the society etc.
  • THE ROLE AND POSITION OF RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS IN THE SOCIETY:The role of religious institutions is to promote spiritual growth of people.The churches and Mosques established have that primary role. Apart from spiritual growth of people, religious institutions also provide social services to people.The church provide health, safe and clean water services. This can be seen at Mkongo parish where the church has built a dispensary which treats all residents of Mkongo.The church also fights against evils prevailing in the society that hinder spiritual harmonization of people.The church also educates the society on the causes of diseases like cholera. People are advised to go to hospital whenever they fall sick rather than going to witchdoctors.
  • CHOLERA (WATERBORNE DISEASE): The writer focuses on the eruption of cholera at Mkongo village. The church and the government took initiatives to help people. Cholera was caused by poor hygiene,ignorance,poverty and superstition.The dirty environment with lack of latrines contribute a lot to the spread of the disease.Poverty can be another major cause of the disease since people can not afford to buy utensils for boiling drinking water and buying soaps to wash their hands as part of cleanliness. The persistence of cholera is accelerated by the level of ignorance of the people.Lack of good social services especially clean and safe water for drinking forced people to drink contaminated water from river Mbuchi. Cholera causes death. The disease kills many people especially those who go to the witchdoctor instead of going to the hospital. People at Mkongo village are ignorant and think that they are bewitched.
  • SUPERSTITION:A deep rooted belief in the community.The belief is based on magic power,witchcraft and invisible evil spirits. Witchdoctors use that loop hole to collect money from ignorant people. For example,Adolfo believed that his grandmother bewitched his child.Superstition is seen as a source of all conflicts in the society. Adolfo severely beats his grandmother suspecting her of bewitching his child while the child suffers from cholera. Superstition is typically based on deceit and trickery. Superstition is a source of mistreatment of people in the society. People with beliefs on superstition suspect others for bewitching them.For example,Adolfo suspected his grandmother for bewitching his child.
  • SOCIAL CRIMES AND IMMORALITY:The author reveals various social crimes and immorality facing his society. Some of these crimes include murder, drug trafficking and theft. Drug trafficking face many countries in the World. Drugs are transported and distributed in various parts of the country through secret and illegal means. For example,Fr.Moyo is implicated in transporting hashish. He carries these illegal drugs without knowing since they were planted in his bag by Michael.Drug traffickers are detected using dogs and technology at Airports and other transport centres. People involved in drug trafficking use skilled people and technology. Kidnapping is another socia crime shown by the author. Drug traffickers tend to kidnap whoever gets to know their network. Fr.Moyo was kidnapped in Birmingham since he revealed the secrets of the network. Theft and murder are social crimes that threaten harmony of the society.
  • IRRESPONSIBILITY:Bad leadership is revealed by the author. The police force is accused of failing to apprehend the culprits. Insp.Mpangala and sub Insp.Kapela failed to capture the killers of Kalistus. Instead of apprehending the culprits,the police oppressed Mzee Mussa and forced him to name the culprits he did not see. Yombayomba also proved to be an irresponsible leader. It took him hours to gather the villagers when Kalistus was killed. Superstition beliefs can also encourage irresponsibility among leaders as they believe that whatever they want to do,they have to see the witchdoctors first. This reduces confidence of the leader and spoils their decisions.
  • RELEVANCE OF THE NOVEL TO OUR SOCIETY:The novel “A wreath for Fr. Mayer” has the following relevance to our society. Outbreak of Cholera is common in many villages and towns in Tanzania.This has largely been contributed by the habit of people living in dirty environment.The issue of drug trafficking is reported in different parts of the country.Drug traffickers use people they pay or use them without knowing to make their mission possible.Many drug pushers have been caught in different Airports in Tanzania in the process of trying to cheat and fly with illegal drugs.
Exercise 1
  1. Ignorance and betrayal have aided the process of African enslavement within the African continent. Discuss using the novel you have read.
  2. The source of conflicts in most of the African societies is due to lack of education. Refering to the novel you have read,verify the truth of this statement.
  3. Apart from spiritual liberation,religion can also play part to physical and mental liberation.Discuss the role of religious institutions to social prosperity and development by referring to the novel you have read.
  4. Drug abuse is a threat to development of the nation. Referring to the novel you have read,show how drug trafficking is done by drug pushers.
  5. “Cholera outbreak is the product of society life style” Referring to the novel you have read,verify the statement above.
Content in Passed Like a Shadow
Analyse content in Passed Like a Shadow
  • HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC.:‘’Passed like a shadow’’ is a symbolic representation of how the disease kills many people suddenly. The following events and situations reveal theexistence ,causesand impact of the disease in the society. For example in the novel, Tusiime,Kunihira, and University students like David and grownups likeAdyeriand David andAdyeri’sfamily perishas they contract HIV/AIDS.That shows that all youths are sexually responsible. They stand a high chance of being infected by AIDS.
  • POVERTY:In the novel of “Passed like a shadow” poverty is a general situation of inability to get basic needs. It acts as another catalyst in the spread of AIDS. Due to this situation, some people especially girls look for men who are well off economically so that they may survive. Example Kunihira,tusiimeand someUniversity girls use this way as an alternative to getmoney. For exampleKunihiratell Vicky that “look how poor your dress is, you must be the most poorly dressed girl in fort portal….”this shows the level of poverty affects the individuals so that lead people to get HIV/AIDS.
  • FAMILY INSTABILITY:The stability of a family brings peace, love, prospect and success but when there is uncertainty the family loses direction and stands at risk of breaking up. For example conflicts between parents or children and parent, parent irresponsibility, drunkardness, marriage unfaithfulness, job mishandling and HIV/AIDS. Family conflict: exampleAdyeri’sfamily breaks up due to this. He has poor relationship with his children and wife due to his harsh behavior anddrunkardness. He ends up dying with HIV/AIDS and his family fell apart.
  • IRRESPONSIBILITY:This shows the habit of not caring or thinking carefully about something.In this novel there are many events as we can seeAdyeriwas a drunkard and unfaithful to his wife. That led him to have no time to care his family as the result children received poor parental care.
  • MARRIAGE SYSTEM:Most couples are not faithful to each other as in ‘’Passed like a shadow ‘’Adyeri had many concubines, one of them beingBirungi. Since he was unfaithful in marriage, he ended up bringing HIV/AIDS to his wife,Amoti.Aliganyirawas not faithful and hence acquired the disease (HIV/AIDS) and infected hiswife(Vicky).
  • CONFLICT:There was a conflict inAdyeri’sfamily betweenAdyeriand his wifeAmoti.Adyeribeing a cruel and irresponsible father was hated by his childrenAtwokiandAbooki.Amotiwas not in good terms with Vicky and she caused her to run away from home.Adyeriended up in stiff conflict with his ex-concubine,Birungi.
  • SUPERSTITION:Amotibelieved that her husband has been bewitched by aBirungi, his concubine. The drunkard men who used to drink together withAdyeribelieved thatAdyeri’sdeath was due to slim. They had very little knowledge about the disease; hence there was a belief among people that the disease was based on witchcraft. It was abominable for a woman to ride a bicycle in this community as this was termed to be the sign of prostitution.
  • POSITION AND ROLE OF A WOMAN:This refers to the place in which woman is put in relation to men in a given society. In this novel, a woman is regarded as a tool for sexual pleasure by men. This was shown throughAdyeri, David, David’s father, andAtwokiwho had many sexual partners for pleasure. For example, David toldAtwoki“these were not created for nothing ….if you can’t enjoy girls, then I wonder what else you can enjoy in this world”They had careless behavior that they all perish of HIV/ AIDS. Women are treated as source of money tomen,Adyeridemanded big bride price fromAkenain order to marry her.TusiimeandKunihiraused their bodies to run commercial sex to men. Men bought them as commodities.Tusiimetells Vicky “as for me I will sleep with any man to make money, life is not easy. Beauty can make your life different. Put your love for sale….”
  • HIV/AIDS is dangerous.
  • Don’t trust anyone.
  • People are ignorant of HIV/AIDS or don’t know much about HIV/AIDS hence majority practices infidelity and prostitution.
Exercise 2
  1. Discuss the essence of conflicts in the novel “Passed like a Shadow” and show the remedy the novelist suggests. How those conflicts help the novelist to reveal the society problems?
  2. By using the novel “Passed like a shadow”, discuss the functions of literature in our society.
  3. How have the writer of “Passed like a Shadow” used symbolism to present the intended message to the readers.
  4. “Spread of HIV/AIDS is the product of society life style”. Referring to the novel “Passed like a Shadow”, verify the statement above.
  5. Marriage is considered to be an important social obligation in African societies; however, it sometimes leads the concerned parties into frustration. Show how true is the statement by referring to the reading you have read.
Content in Unanswered Cries
Analyse content in Unanswered Cries
The novel ‘Unanswered cries” written by Osman Conteh has the following themes:
  • CONFLICT:This misunderstanding occurred between the following: OLABILISI VERSUS RUGIATU AND SALAY - The conflict occurred at the forest when Olabisi asked them if they are circumcised or not, so they started fight when Olabisi called them gorka .They also felt jealous as Olabisi came from town; ADES JONES VERSUS MAKALAY: The conflicts between them occurred as the result of lack of faithfulness in marriage. Ades Jones likes chasing skirts. Their marriage broke down due to jealous and lack of understanding between them. The act of Ade Jones prohibiting her daughter to be circumcised increased the conflict between them; MAKALAY VERSUS OYAH: Oyah took the husband of Makalay. This caused conflict between them as everyone considered that she had right to be wife of Ade Jones. Love jealous played part to their misunderstanding; MAKALAY VERSUS HER DAUGHTER: The conflict was due to Makalay’s demand of circumcisingOlabisiwithout her will.Olabisidid not support her as she realized the effects of women circumcision.
  • BETRAYAL:Makalay betrayed her only daughter (Olabisi) when she conspired with bondo secret group to circumcise her. Makalay says” whatever the spirit says I will do”.The betrayal of Olabisi’s father when he decides to marry a lawyer and leave her wife suffering in the village.Makalaybetrayed her husband when she got a man to live with (Dauda)
  • JEALOUS:Makalay felt jealous since her ex-husband fell in love with another woman .Rugiatu and Salay felt jealous since Olabisi was from the city and shows that she had confidence and self awareness.
  • SELF AWARENESS:Olabisi is aware that women circumcision is dangerous to women during child birth .Doctor Asiatu was aware of the problems caused by genital mutilation. Ade Jones was aware that circumcision of women did more harm good.
  • PROSTITUTION:This issue of prostitution is portrayed by the writer of this novel. The writer reveals through the main characterOlabisiwho started engaging in love at the age of fourteen years old .Makalaygot pregnancy and hence this proved the failure of circumcision to reduce sexual desire. Also Ade Jones was notable skirt chaser. He did not control his sexual desire and ended up making love with other women who came close to him.
  • PHYSICAL FITNESS:Olabisiwas trained by her boyfriend eddy to defend herself. She used her body to defendRugiatuandSalayand other people. So that shows how people can use their bodies to defend themselves.
  • AFRICAN CULTURE:The writer portrayed the customs and traditions of Temne people, the tribe found in Sierra Leone. According to Temne tradition and beliefs, all women have to be circumcised to reduce sexual desire and become faithful to their husbands. So in their tribe, the woman who is not circumcised is calledgborka. People believe in magic and outdated customs and traditions.
  • POSITION OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY:The writer portrays a woman as weakcreature .Womenare circumcised without their will in order to reduce their sexual desire. Also women are portrayed as refreshment tools to men as in the novel; Ade Jones made love with different types of women before he got married toOyah.
  • THEROLE OF COERSIVE ORGANS IN DECISION MAKING:The court can be used by people to get their rights. The dispute between Ade Jones and Makalay was settled in court. JudgeLansanaKanuruled the judgment that Olabilisi could not be forced to be circumcised without her own consent since she was grown up. The bondo secret group was defeated before the court.
The author uses simple English easy to understand since it is straight forward.
The author shows good message to the society that women circumcision is not good since it brings a big effect to our health such as getting problems during birth, and lead transmission of disease such as HIV/AIDS, and most of women loose much blood and that lead to their death. So people need education about circumcision and stop ignorance.
There are many people who practice circumcision. Most of Africans believe in superstition. As in the novel, theTemnepeople in Sierra Leone engaged in women circumcision. Other societies who still practice women circumcision in East Africa are such as theMasai, Kikuyu,LuoandKurya.
Exercise 3
  1. Female genital mutilation is a common practice in some African societies. It is carried out for a particular reason according to customs and traditions. In reference to any novel you have read, do you think the reasons given in support of the practice fair? Why?
  2. Choose any TWO characters from the readings you have read and show the messages conveyed by the character. How relevant are the messages in our daily experience?
  3. Betrayal seems to be a common issue in the society. Those who practice itseemsto enjoy but its effects are far reaching. Discuss the truth of this phrase in reference to two readings you have read.
  4. Unfaithfulness in marriage and in relationship tends to cause family or relationship breaks up. Discuss how this issue is portrayed in two readings you have read.
  5. “Our parents are very important agents of shaping our personalities” Verify this claim by using two novels of your choice.

The Form in The Black Hermit
Analyse the form in The Black Hermit
YEAR: 1968
The play was first produced by the Makerere College students’ dramatic society at Uganda national theatre in November 1962 when the East African countries attained independence.By then tribalism was the biggest problem facing the New East African countries. So the drama shows people were against those humiliations hence they had to expose and root out the effect of tribalism, racism and religious functions.
  • He is the main character of the play
  • He is the son of Ngome and Nyobi.
  • He is the only one at University from Marua tribe.
  • He has changed his behavior since he went to University and knows girls in the city but at the beginning, while in the village he was a God fearing child and shy with girls.
  • When he reaches University he leaves religious affairs and becomes a politician. He joined the Nationalist party. He has a friend Omange who discusses politics with him and has a girlfriend called Jane in the city who spend nights with him in clubs
  • He is the friend of Remi in the city
  • He is from another tribe
  • He is wise and aware of racism, tribalism and religious conflicts.
  • He wants the state to act by allowing the trade union to have rights to strike.
  • He blames Remi for not giving a chance to Thoni to express her feelings.
  • She is the mother of Remi and In -law to Thoni.
  • Her husband Ngome died of shock following the death of Remi’s brother who was once married to Thoni.
  • She represents a woman who cares so much about the well being of her family. She is a Christian but not a strong one due to her beliefs in the elders of Marua tribe.
  • She is the most beautiful and strongest girl in the Marua tribe.
  • She was a girl admired by Remi though she did not know whether Remi loves her.
  • She was ready to marry Remi when her husband passed away.
  • The weakness of Thoni becomes a problem when Remi disgraced her in public and she decides to kill herself by committing suicide.
  • She is Remi’s white girlfriend in the city.
  • She loves Remi but she was not aware that Remi has a wife back in the village.
  • She is ready to live with Remi despite his race.
  • She called Remi a weak man and told him to go back to his tribe
  • She is a strong woman because when she notices that Remi has a wife, she decides to leave him but not to commit suicide as Thoni.
  • He is a strong Christian. He influences Remi to be a God fearing child. He is also unhappy with Remi’s disappearance into the city.
  • He does not want Remi to join politics and he is strongly against traditional beliefs.
  • He blames Remi for causing disunity among Christians and isolating himself from the community.
  • They wanted Remi to come back to the village and they followed him to town and convinced him to turn back home.
  • They don’t believe in Christianity but trust Marua’s traditional medicine.
  • She is from Marua tribe. She loves Thoni and takes time to exchange ideas with her.
  • She advises Thoni to be calm to wait for Remi. She cooperates in looking for Thoni when she disappears.
The Form in The Lion And The Jewel
Analyse the form in The Lion And The Jewel
YEAR: 1963
THE TITLE:The title of the play above represents the oppressive nature of the system.The Lion in this play represents men who oppress women in a male dominated society while the Jewel is used to represent women who are the victims of men’s oppression.The jewel here is represented by SIDI.She represents the group of women who face oppression and humiliation from men.
  • LAKUNLE:A village school teacher. He fell in love with a virgin village beauty, SIDI. He was not ready to pay the bride price in order to marry SIDI. He is a fighter of women’s rights and opposes all bad African customs and traditions.
  • SIDI:A beautiful village girl. She fell in love to Lakunle though later on she finds herself married to chief Baroka after been tricked. She is a conservative village girl who sticks to African customs and traditions. She was ignorant and did not support European lifestyles.
  • BAROKA:A chief of Ilujnle village. A strong and feared chief of the village. He was a womanizer. He marries any woman who eats supper with him. He uses women as tools of enjoyment. HE uses a trick to marry SIDI. He represents leaders who use their power to oppress women.
  • SADIKU:Baroka’s eldest wife. She was used by Baroka as a go between to seduce SIDI. She feels happy when she notices that her husband is impotent. She is not aware of her rights as a woman.
The playwright used figures of speech in his work.The figures of speech used in the Play “The lion and the Jewel” are as follows:
  • Metaphor: eg “I am the twinkle of the jewel while he is the hind quarters of a lion”(p.23). “Sadiku is my faithfull lizard (p.47)
  • Proverbs: eg “Old wine thrives within a new bottle”
The Form in This Time Tomorrow
Analyse the Form in This Time Tomorrow
YEAR: 1963
The following are some of the characters who were found in the play ”This Time Tomorrow”
  • Journalist
  • Editor
  • Njango
  • Wanjiro,her daughter
  • 1st customer
  • 2nd customer
  • 3rd customer
  • Inspector Kiongo
  • Tinsmith
  • Shoemaker
  • Asinjo
  • Stranger
  • Police Officer
  • Crowd, Policemen
  • Njango:She is the main character of the Play. She is a widow and the mother of Wanjiro. When her husband passed away in the struggle during Mau Mau war, she came to town. She engaged in a petty trade of selling soup at Uhuru market. She believes in tribalism. She is poor and shares the floor with her daughter as a bed.She was a victim of keep-clean-the-city campaign.
  • Wanjiro:The daughter of Njango.She has natural beauty and a lived poor life. She is ignorant as she did not go to school. She loves Asinjo and wants to marry him. She admires how European ladies dress.
  • Stranger:He is an activist who fought for Uhuru during Mau Mau war. He educates people on their rights and makes them aware of humiliation and exploitation. He unites people against the city council with its campaign of “keep the city clean.”
  • Shoemaker:One of the slum dwellers. He is illiterate and does not know his age.He was among the freedom fighters in the forest. He protests against the government’s decision to demolish the houses.
  • 1st, 2nd &3rd customer:They are among the slum dwellers.They buy soup at Njangos place.They oppose the city campaign of demolishing their slums.
  • Inspector Kiongo:A worker at the City Council in the Health department. He reminds people at Uhuru market to move away since the slums are to be demolished.He is among those who enjoy the national cake.
  • Asinjo:He is a young man from a different tribe with Wanjiro. He was chased away and insulted by Njango as he wanted to marry Wanjiro. He convinces Wanjiro to go with him and ignore her mother for claim that she is ignorant and old.
  • Tinsmith:He is a slum dweller who lives a poor life. He is ignorant. He cooked for the white people during the war. He makes and sells water tins,pangas,hoes etc.
  • Journalist:A reporter of different events in the society.For example,he reported on the keep the city campaign, how houses were demolished and how people reacted against it. He takes pictures of different people like the Tinsmith and Inspector Kiongo.
  • Police Officer:He is among the civil servants.He represents the Government to make sure that the clean the city campaign is a success.Other BooksA WREATH FOR FR. MAYERPASSED LIKE A SHADOWUNANSWERED CRIESTHE BLACK HERMITTHE LION AND THE JEWELPOETRY ANALYSIS

The Form in The Black Hermit
Analyse content in The Black Hermit
  • CONFLICT:The playwright shows that Remi was in conflict with his community since he ran away from them and became the black hermit in the city. The conflict also occurred between Jane and Remi. Jane did not like whenRemi prohibited her from going with her to his village. She felt that she lost her time to love someone who had a wife in the village. RemiversushisMother;Remiwas in conflict with his mother since her mother wanted him to marry the village girl,Thoni. This created misunderstanding between them. RemiversusJane;There was a conflict between those two whenRemiwanted to go back to the village without Jane. Jane became furious sinceRemihas wasted her time lying to her they could marry whileRemihas wife back to the village. Between Elders and Pastor as well as all Christians;The conflicts were due to other people to believe in superstition while others believed in one true God. The pastor wanted Remi back home to lead the church whileRemion the other hand wanted to be a politician in order to unite his people through Africanist party. Remiversushistribe members; TheMaruapeople trustedRemito serve the tribe. Instead of serving the tribe,Remiwants to unite all people and bring unity among all tribes. He shows example to his people by showing them the love he had to hisfriend(Omange) who was from a different tribe. RemiversusOmange; The misunderstanding between them was due toRemi‘s attitude ofsupporting peoplenot to fight in strike and demand for their rights while Omange was against, so he says a trade union without the right to strike is like a lion without claws and teeth.
  • RELIGION:Some people are traditionalist like the elders who believe in magic power .Others are Christians asRemisince their childhood. He believes and fears God, and his family are Christians. The Christians and the traditionalists differ in attitude and their ways of worship.
  • RESPONSIBILITY:The author insists on the need of being responsible in the society so as to be able to face challenges and problems .He advises that a person is not supposed to run away from his responsibility .You need to solve it as Remi supposed to take care of her mother and his wife and the village but not run away from them, that shows his weakness. SoRemiought stay in the society and face the problem and solve them.
  • SELF AWARENESS AND PERSONALITY:The author shows that the changing of the personality and awareness of Remi was the result of being young and educated. Remi was a good boy and God fearing but when he grew up and studied at the University, he did not fear God but went against and lived his life with luxurious life in the city. And whenRemiwas at the village he was shy with girls, but when he went to the city he did not have the habit of shyness but he was the one who own girls, Jane been a good example of girls he spent with her nights in the night clubs.
  • BUILDING THE FUTURE:The author shows thatRemistruggled to bring changes in the country. He wanted people to develop and be free from racism and tribalism. So Remi finds that in order to develop, people should start working in unity. The tribe sent Remi to study at University so as to help them in future. The tribe believed that true education could only be achieved through education.
  • LEADERSHIP:The author portrayed the aspect of leadership as we can see in theplay .Remipresents the marua tribe and people believe on him and keep trust onRemi. They believed that Remi will do away with tribalism, racism and religious isolation. So the people do not like pastor and elders since they bring religious isolation by despising traditional beliefs that bring disunity among themselves.
  • DISUNITY:The problem was that people were not united due to their differences in beliefs.Others were Christians and others believed in magic power. So this brings disunity among people. So people need to be together and cooperate and fight for their rights and freedom, away from racism, tribalism and religious isolation.
  • MARRIAGE ISSUES:According to Marua tribe, one can inherit the wife of his brother. Remi is told by his family and the elders to marryThoni, his brother’s widow. He tells his friendOmangeaboutwhat his father has told him ‘’He called me in his bed and said ‘Remiyouknowour custom .Your brother’s wife is now your wife ‘’Remirefused to marryher sohe ran to the city, that is why he became the hermit.
  • SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS:PeopleofMaruatribebelievedin mountains ,sowecanseeelders inMaruausedmedicine that can change Remi’s mindand decide to go back to the village .We see one elder carry a bundle of medicine wrapped in banana leaf, on leaving the house he leaves at door way .And the elder toldNyobithat his son has beenbewitched by their neighbours because of jealous. They tell that they are not pleased with the success of Remi, so that shows that they believe in superstition.
Thisplaywas first produced by theMakerere college students Dramaticsociety atthe Uganda NationalTheatre inNovember1962 whenthe EastAfrican countries had attained independence.
So by then ,tribalism andracismwas the most thing practiced in our society .Until today there are other African countries such as Kenya, tribalism continue till now .The Kikuyu andLuoalways fight in Kenya. In South Africa, they practiced racism in some areas wherethere were streets of white people and black people, but generally, people need to be free from tribalism. So the author has played his role by giving message to the people who need to be free from tribalism.
  • Political consciousness has vital role of any political development. This shows that people need to be united so that they can change and bring development to the country so it shows that development cannot happen overnight, so people need to plan and practice in order to overcome problem and bring changes.
  • Unity is essential thing to any revolution (struggle) and changes to our society. So people need to be together and cooperate so that they work together and bring development.
  • We must sacrifice in order to eliminate oppression .This shows that Remi sacrificed himself in order to overcome the problem of racism, tribalism and religious matters so that people could unite together and bring changes in their country.
LANGUAGE USE: The author used simple language and symbolic language but well understood.
Exercise 4
  1. In many situations one finds disagreement between representative of characters who strives for changes and those who are conservative. Prove the truth of this statement and show out the lesson we learn from each situation by referring to the play “The Black hermit”.
  2. With reference to the play “The Black Hermit”, discuss the role played by the protagonist in relation to your society and the world at large.
  3. Show how characterization has been used by any playwright under this program tobledwith the plot of the play.
  4. In most cases, the playwright determination is to strive against injustice and build a just society. By using the play “The Black Hermit” verify the statement.
  5. Characterization is one of the artistic devices used by the playwright through which their respective audience can understand the story. Use any reading you have read to verify the statement.
Content in The Lion And The Jewel
Analyse content in The Lion And The Jewel
The following are the themes found in the play “The lion and the Jewel”
  • Women emancipation:The main theme in the play.The play is there to solve women oppression.It was indicated in the play that women were not involved in decision making.Sexual harassment for women is also shown by the playwright.In the play, Baroka tricked SIDI and slept with her without her will. Lakunle represents women rights fighters. Sadiku was used by her husband to trap SIDI and she succeeded in her mission.Early marriage for small girls was portrayed to be a problem. Baroka married SIDI who was very young compared to his age.
  • A clash between cultures:There is a mismatch between European culture and traditional African culture. Lakunle opposes the issue of dowry payment and polygamy in his society.This is against African culture.A woman or girl can not get married without bride price.SIDIrejected the kiss from Lakunle as this is not common in African cultural practices.Western culture was represented by Lakunle who wanted to transform the village of ilujnle to be a modern village with all the western life styles while on the other side, Sidi and Baroka represents the conservative African traditionalists who believed in African culture.
  • Polygamy:This is a common cultural practice in Africa.The strength of a man according to African culture was judged by the number of wives he possesses.The traditions allow a man to have more than one wife.Baroka is portrayed as a polygamous since he had many wives and concubines.Polygamy can be the source of HIV/AIDS spread and creation of big families difficult to handle.Polygamy is a source of women oppression and humiliation.
  • Betrayal:Every community has traitors.In the play,the playwright portrayed Lakunle as a great betrayer of African customs and traditions.He used his education to educate people on the bad African customs and traditions which have to be discarded.He was against bride price and polygamy.He wanted to transform the village into a modern village.The traditionalists like Baroka and Sadiku did not support Lakunle and mocked him and regarded him as a traitor in their society.The followers of western culture are always regarded as traitors since they undermine their own culture and lift up the foreign culture.
  • Irresponsibility:The playwright shows Baroka as irresponsible leader who spent most of his time thinking women and planning new marriages instead of thinking on development of his village.Baroka was conservative and did not accept challenges from the young generation(Lakunle) who wanted to transform the village by opening the eyes of villagers to see what is happening in other parts of the World through newspapers.Lakunlewas portrayed as irresponsible teacher since he left his students in the class and went to meet SIDI.Lakunle spent most of his time thinking on how to win SIDI’s love instead of making efforts in teaching and think on how to enable his students pass.
  • Protest:Lakunle protested against African culture.He protested against polygamy and paying of bride price.Sidi protested to be married to Baroka since Baroka was old than her.SIDI also protested to be married to Lakunle who wanted to marry her without paying bride price.
  • Misuse of Power:There are leaders who misuse their power for their personal interest.In the play “The lion and the Jewel”,the playwright shows Baroka as a leader who used his power to force women to get married to him without their will.For example,Baroka used his power to invite SIDI at the palace to supp with her.Sadiku was sent by the chief(Baroka) to convey the message of marriage to SIDI though his request was rejected.Lakunle was beaten by the chief’s companions for messing around the girl(SIDI) who was loved by the chief too.
  • Allienation:Lakunle alienated himself from his society as he did not support the cultural practices which were done by the people from his communiy.Being educated,Lakunle despised all the African ways and praised European culture.His negative attitude towards African customs and traditions caused him to be isolated by villagers.
  • Conflicts:The conflict in the play can be explained in the following areas: SidivsLakunle;Lakunle rejected the notion of dowry payment and polygamy in his society. As the result, he found himself in conflict with SIDI and Baroka who supported the issue of bride price and polygamy. Baroka vs Lakunle; The cause of conflict between Baroka and lakunle was due to competition over SIDI’s love.Each one wanted to marry SIDI, eventually Baroka married SIDI.Lakunle did not support this marriage and hence developed hatred to SIDI and Baroka for betraying him.
We have leaders in Tanzania who use their power to humiliate other people.The police officers are good examples of people who use their power to punish those who compete with them in love.The issue of dowry payment is common to most of the Afican families.There are people who have failed to marry the girls they love due to lack of money to pay bride price.
There is a tendence of old people in our society to be in love with young girls.This has partly been contributed by poverty and influence of money and power.The rate of young girls engaging in love with old men is increasing in different parts of the country.Changes in any community is inevitable,yet there are people who are conservative and reluctant to accept new changes,especially the old generation.Polygamy and prostitution are common practices in our society.People are not faithful to their lovers.
Exercise 5
  1. Analyse the role of womenin the play “The Lion and the Jewel”
  2. “Many conflicts occur as the result of selfish tendencies of some members of the society”.Discuss the statement with reference to the play “The Lion and the Jewel”
  3. Referring to the play “The Lion and the Jewel”, explain how drama can be used to entertain the readers and at the same time criticizing the society.
  4. “Sacrifice is one of the key factors for any social changes”.Use the play “The Lion and the Jewel” to verify the statement.
  5. Irresponsibility is a source of underdevelopment in any society.Use the play”The Lion and the Jewel”to verify the statement.
Content in This Time Tomorrow
Analyse content in This Time Tomorrow
A theme is the main idea in the work of art.Several themes can be analysed from this play.Among the themes in the play “This Time Tomorrow” are protest,tribalism,poverty,conflict,building the future,illusion,environmental sanitation and awareness.
  • PROTEST:Means disapproval of something which is unjust.Protest dominated in the whole play of “This Time Tomorrow”.People at Uhuru market protested against the city council which planned to demolish their slums.People also protested against introduction of new cultural ways of life based on Western culture.
  • BETRAYAL:The government betrayed the Kenyans as it did not fulfil its promises of bringing good life to them. The jobs and houses promised by the government for freedom fighters were not provided.People continue living in slums. Njango lives in the shelter constructed by cardboards and rotting tins. The stranger says” We fought for Uhuru because we were told it would mean decent houses and decent jobs. But where are the jobs! Where are the houses!”. This portrays that people were betrayed by the government.The national cake was enjoyed by the few selected government leaders.
  • HUMILIATIONOR DEHUMANIZATION:The government humiliated people by destroying their slums at Uhuru market.People protest against the government order to demolish their slums. Njango was among those who protested. Njango says” City council or no city council, i am not going to move from this place”. The shoemaker says ‘’Itis not that i do not want to move but the government should give me the placeto go-------why should i move from here?---I only wanted to be left alone.It shows that people were against the decisions made by the city council.
  • WESTERNCULTURE:The old generation oppose the changes brought by Western culture while the young enjoy adapting western ways.For example, Njango opposes the new dressing style.She asks her daughter” You want to dress like white people”?
  • TRIBALISM:The writer uses Asinjo and Wanjiro to show his protest against tribalism.Though Asinjo loves Wanjiro,Njango opposes strongly for her daughter to get married to a man from another tribe.She tells Wanjiro”With that man”? A man from another tribe?-----Tribalism remains to be a problem in different countries in Africa.
  • LAND ALIENATION:People did not support for their land to be taken by few people. They started the fight against the white people in order to get their land back. After achievement of independence, the land still remained in the hands of few African leaders, hence the majority remained landless. The stranger says” We fought for land!” where is the land? People think that their leaders have betrayed them.
  • DISUNITY:Disunity is portrayed in the play. In the play, this was indicated by the act of people running away when the police arrived.1st customer says “Police! The police are coming!”2nd customer says “Run! Run! Run quickly! Out of my way!”This shows that people were coward and divided. They had no courage to fight together against the common enemy.
  • IGNORANCE/ILLITERACY:The writer portrays the issue of ignorance in his book.Ignorance has made people to live in poor life.Ignorance made people reluctant to accept new changes. It is ignorance which has made people to accept tribalism, disunity is also there since people have no education.People did not understand the stranger when he insisted on solidarity. The stranger says” Let us stand together”. Due to ignorance,the people believe that the stranger can perform magic to save them.
  • CONFLICT:The writer also managed to show the theme of conflict with great success. Conflict can be a source of disunity, enemity and underdevelopment. In this play,the conflict has been shown in the following areas:The conflict between the slum dwellers and the city council;The conflict was the result of the city council to demolish the slums at Uhuru market.People did not support the city council campaign of demolishing the slums.Conflict between the young and the old;The old generation (Njango) opposes all the changes brought by introduction of new cultural practices. On the other hand,the new generation like changes and want to look like white people. For example, Wanjiro wants to marry a man from another tribe. This is against their culture. She also wants to wear long heeled shoes like European women and also smoke Cigar. She also wants to go to school like her brother. All these are opposed by her mother(Njango).Conflict between the police officer and the stranger;The police officer arrested the stranger for causing violence and civil disobedience.When arresting the stranger, the police officer says”In the name of our new republic,you are arrested----! Follow us!Intra-personal conflict;Wanjiro is not happy for not been sent to school. She is also not happy with life in the slums. She wants to wear nice dresses like other girls but her mother is poor and can not afford to buy nice dresses for her daughter.
  • COLONIAL LEGACY:The playwright proves to us that there are still some elements of colonialism in African countries. People have not seen changes even after the achievement of independence. People are landless and jobless. The land has remained in the hands of few people. The national cake is enjoyed by the minority. The new generation likes dressing like white people. Wanjiro says "I want a frock.And shoes-high heels-so that i can walk like a European lady".
  • BUILDING THE FUTURE:People in Kenya waged war(Mau Mau war) against the colonial government in order to get their land and sovereignty back. Njango, the tinsmith and the shoemaker struggled in doing petty trade in order to get money to buy their basic needs. Dedan Kimathi and the stranger are examples of people who decided to sacrifice their lives in order to bring changes to their society.In any struggle,there are few people who can loose their lives.For example,Njango’s husband lost his life in the forest while fighting for Uhuru under Mau Mau movement.
  • POVERTY:The playwright has shown poverty in the play. Most of the freedom fighter live in slums.They engage in petty activities. Njango shares bed with her daughter and her shelter is made of cardboards and rotten tins.
  • SOCIAL STRATIFICATION/SEGREGATION:The minority seem to enjoy the national cake.They drive expensive cars and live in good houses in the city.On the other hand,people like Njango,the shoemaker and the tinsmith live in miserable life.This portrays social classes whereby those who have positions in the government are in the high class while the normal citizens live in low class.
  • THE PLIGHT OF WOMEN/GIRLS:Women remain widows due to deaths of their husbands,in the play, Njango lost her husband. Njango tells her daughter”Your father was captured,they shot him dead like a dog”. Njango sells soup in order to earn living. Girls are not given chance to go to school.They remain at home doing domestic chores.Women also especially the young ones are always cheated by men. Njango warns her daughter for engaging in love with Asinjo.
  • THE USE OF MEDIA:The play also shows the role of the media in the society.People get up to date information on different issues occurring in their community.For example, the reporters reported the incidence of demolishing the slums from the beginning to the end.
The play ”This Time Tomorrow” reflects what happens in the society. In some parts of the country, there are problems of tribalism. The city councils in Tanzania sometimes demolish houses of people without paying them or showing them where to build. Western culture has changed the life style of many young men in Tanzania. They act and live like white people. There is also a big number of illiterate people in our society who don’t know how to read and write.
Exercise 6
  1. Ignoranceand poverty are hindering blocks to society’s progress.Referring to the play “ThisTime tomorrow, show the truth of this statement.
  2. “Many conflicts occur as the result of selfish tendencies of some members of the society”. Discuss the statement with reference to the play “This Time Tomorrow”
  3. Referring to the play “This Time Tomorrow”, explain how drama can be used to entertain the readers and at the same time criticizing the society.
  4. “Sacrifice is one of the key factors for any social changes”. Use the play “This Time Tomorrow” to verify the statement.
  5. Show the relevance of the play “This Time Tomorrow” to your society.

The Form in Poetry
Analyse the Form in Poetry
Poetry can be defined as a writing that formulates a concentrated, imaginative awareness of experience chosen and arranged to create a specific emotional response through its meaning, sound andrhythm.
Unlike other forms of creative writing, Poetry concentrates, sharpens and condenses what it has to say.
  • Narrative Poetry: This is a kind of poetry that narrates a story. For example,in the poem “Always a suspect” the poet is telling us the story of a black young boy in South Africa who was suspected to be a thief for his appearance and had to show documents to prove that he is innocent.
  • Didactic Poetry: This is the type of poetry whose aim is instructional to the reader rather than an appeal to his imaginative understanding. They have explicit political or social messages e.g poverty, development, diseases.
  • Lyrical Poetry: These are poems which express the thoughts and particularly the feelings of the writer. For example, Love poems are Lyrical e.g “I love my Gentle one”
Poetry is the product of oral traditions and songs. The musical elements of poetry are an important part of attraction.
  • Rythm:A pattern of stress in speech. Rhythm is used to add to both the meaning and music. Important words in the poem are given stress. For example, from the poem, “If we must die”t he wordin vainis given a stress.
  • The repetition of sounds: Poems have repetition of sounds in certain parts. The repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of lines of poem. For example, in the poem”EAT MORE” the words, ‘say’ and ‘pay’, ‘bread’ and ‘wed’ rhyme the same.
  • Alteration:Repetition of the same sound at the beginning of wordse.g TheGirlsGiggled like aGaggle ofGeese
  • Refrain: The words or lines repeated at the end of each stanza. It can be very long or very short. For example, in the poem “Atieno Yo”
The repetition here shows the monotony of the work.
  • Imagery:Language is full of imagery. Imagery means the creation of pictures with words e.g snow, lion, jewel etc.
  • Simile:This is the comparison of two dissimilar things using the words “like” or “as”. In the poem “An Abandoned Bundle” simile is used.
  • Metaphor:This is a comparison of two dissimilar things but without using the words “like” or “as” e.g He was a lion in battle.
  • Personification:Giving human qualities to something which is not human. For example,in the poem ”The Vultures” the terms civilization and holy water are given human qualities to act as humans.
  • Symbol:The word or an image that represents other or more meaning than what it represents in common. For example the word “Piano” can represent western culture and “Drums” can represent African culture.
  • Understatement: Is the tendency whereby the poet deliberately avoids stressing his points too much, even when talking about something which one has to be serious.
  • Persona: The use of the pronoun “I” in the poem refers to the poet who writes the poem.
  • Verse:A single line in a poem.The combination of verses form a stanza.
  • Poetic Licence:This is the ability given to the poet to use broken English to fulfil his/her needs of conveying a message to the audience e.g “Your lost” instead of “You are lost”
  • Type of the poem:Free verse/open form type of a poem.
  • Structure: The poem has four stanzas. The first stanza has seven verses, the second stanza has eight verses, the third stanza has five lines, and the last stanza has one verse.
  • Diction:The language used is clear and straight forward.
  • Figures of speech:Personification e.g”Hollow heads torture me”. Irony - The persona calls his enemies friends (3rd stanza).
  • Tone/Voice:The tone is serious because the persona is ready to fight till his/her last blood.
  • Mood:The mood of the persona is sad because he/she is oppressed, tortured, harrassed and confused.
By Ralph Bitamazire
Question Time 1
From the poem above, comment on the following:
  1. Mood
  2. Diction/language use
  • The poet is happy and sings for his lover with happy tears
Diction/language use
  • The language used is straight foward since it is easy to understand. The poet used metaphor in his work e.g “My love is the fresh milk in the Rubindi” “My love is the butter we were smeared”
Question Time 2
What are the possible themes of the poem?
The possible themes of the poem are; true love, traditional marriage, oath
Question Time 3
Comment on the structure of this poem.
The poem has three stanzas. The first stanza has five (5) verses, the second stanza has four (4) verses, while the third stanza has three (3) verses.
Content in Poetry
Analyse Content in Poetry
POEM---Is a metrical composition characterized by strong imagination,emotion and appropriate language.
  • Tone---------Feature of a poem which shows the author’s attitude.For example,in the poem Mamparra M’gaiza,the poet uses the word ‘’stupid’’ and “cattle” to wake up the contract workers.
  • Diction--------Is the choice and arrangement of words in a poem.A poet has to be careful in selection of words to use in the poem.
  • Internal structure-----This means the way the poem is developed,the way the poet develops his ideas makes us to know what he wants to say.For example,in the poem”EAT MORE”,the poet draws a picture of a person who is encourage to eat balanced diet while he is jobless and has no money.The poet develops the poem by saying that what she/he can afford is to “Eat more bloody grass”.
  • Understand well the title of the poem: Understanding the title of the poem makes a reader to predict the content of the poem.For example,the title”Your pain” can be predicted that there is suffering as a focus in the poem.
  • Consider the form and type of the poem---Judge whether the poem is Lyric,narrative,ballad etc.You have to state whether the poem is Open(free verse),or closed.
  • Consider the Tone of the poet-----The attitude or mood of the poet has great contribution to interpretation of a poem.The poet determines whether the poet is angry,happy,sad,or serious.
  • Consider the musical or sound features of a poem------Consider Rhyme,Rhythm,alliteration or refrain.These features are very important in poetry.
  • Think about possible themes-----Consider the poets’ central idea of discussion.In the poem,there is one or more themes.
  • Consider the message of a poem-----The message refers to what the poet wants the readers to know or do after reading the poem e.g avoid child labor,misuse of power etc.
  • Consider the relevance of the poem-------Look at the issues/themes raised in the poem.Relate what you read in the poem with what happens in your community.
  • Consider Language use-------Study how the language has been used in moulding the poem.Consider diction(choice of words),symbols and symbolism and the uses of figures of speech e.g Metaphor,Simile,personification etc.
  • Comment on success or failure of the poet----check the use of language,presentation of message and themes etc.



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