Tuesday, December 27, 2022


  Eli-express       Tuesday, December 27, 2022

Characteristics of research

Characteristics of research include the following:

Empirical – research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher.

Logical – research is based on valid procedures and principles.

Cyclical – research starts with a problem and ends with a problem.

Analytical – research utilizes proven analytical procedures in gathering data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, and case study.

Critical – research exhibits careful and precise judgment.

Methodical – research is conducted in a methodical manner without bias using systematic method and procedures.

Replicability – research design and procedures are repeated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results.

Types of research

There are three main types of research as described below:-

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is a scientific research which seeks to discover basic truths or principles. This type of research is driven purely by curiosity and a desire to expand our knowledge. It tends not to be directly applicable to the real world in a direct way, but enhances our understanding of the world around us.

Applied research involves seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem such as the development of new system or procedure, new device, or new method, in order to solve an immediate problem. Therefore, applied research is used to answer a specific question that has direct applications to the world. This is the type of research that solves a problem as it produces knowledge of practical use to man.

3. Developmental research

Developmental research, also known as evaluative research, is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need to improve existing practices. It attempts to assess statistics of something in order to determine its level of worth. If need arises, an improvement on it is made.

Characteristics of research

a. Goal oriented
b. Systematic
c. Logical
d. Imperial
e. Inquisitive
f. Selective
g. Objective
h. Replicable

(a) Goal oriented

Purposeful for the solving of particular problem e.g. Doctor with patient

(b) Systematic

It is the scientific in nature based of regular plan, procedure, rules, fixed method of conducting it. It have structure with specific stapes to be taken in sequence for instance
– Collection
– Analyze
– Interpretation

( c )Logical

Based on premises (incidences) and conclusion. It is guided by the rules of logical reason and logical process, which are of great values in carrying out research
– In fact logical reasoning makes research more meaningful in the context of decision making

(d) empirical

It means the conduction or bear evidences of factual that can be verified. Without evidence conclusion can not be made and if made it will be just an opinion


Means it is investigative in nature based on how and why.

(f) Selective

A researcher normally focuses on only one problem ( phenomena) rather than general or several research problem ( specification)

(g) objectivity

A researcher must be impartial standing point and been free from a personal interest, influence in conducting research ( avoiding personal interest)

(h) Replicable

To allow the research finding to be verified by replicating the study so as to make strong base for decision- making


The main purpose of research is to discover answers to different questions through application of scientific procedure, though each research study has its own specific purpose. The general objective are

1. To develop theories, principles to explain various issues or matters

2. To gain new knowledge to be added to the existing one

3. To solve different social, political and economic problems

4. To fill gaps develop or raised by other researchers

5. To discover answers to different disturbing questions

6. To evaluate success or failure of different projects as the case of environmental project etc

7. To determine the frequency with which something occurs

8. To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, groups or situation. This is basically a description research

9. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new sight into it

10. To test or approve hypothesis of causal relationship between phenomena(variables)

Advantage/strength/ importance/usefulness/merits of field research

i. To look for accurate solution to existing problems

ii. to find answers to existing question e.g what is the reason for failure at form IV’s

iii. It help to generate new ideas to verify the existing ones

iv. Research helps the consumers of it(e.g policy makers) to evaluate themselves and take rational decision

v. It enable society to make intelligent decision concerning problems facing them in particular life at different times

vi. The methodology of research conduction is helpful in various fields such as government and community social works and business administrative at large

vii. It is useful to one who is preparing for a carrier or further studies

Disadvantage/weakness/limitation/demerits of fields research

1. A researcher is to have studied a wide a range of literature and technique before conducting a research.This means it needs skilled people

2. In concentrating on a single problem a researcher may loose sight on broad issues

3. Research is expensive, a lot of money is needed to make a research work. Eg money for food, shelter, accommodation, stationary etc

4. Large amount of data may appear unnecessary and even confusion if the researcher is not scientifically inclined

5. Time consuming .


Research is a scientific process carried out systematically to acquire knowledge of the universe or population through stated objectives, whatever may be the type of research work and studies, one thing is that they all meet common grounds of scientific method employed by them.

Research should not be based on Arbitrary methods ( lack of scientific attitude in that, illogical, subjective, uninformed e.t.c ) Scientific research satisfies the following criteria or qualities:-

I. Research must be cumulative

Research is built over what has already been done before on the problem under investigation where new knowledge is discovered and added to the existing one

II. Research must be cyclic

This is to say research go through various stages include
1. Identification of problem
2. Statement of the problem
3. Formulation of hypothesis
4. Collecting data
5. Organization and tabulation of data
6. Data analysis and interpretation
7. Testing the hypothesis
8. Reporting writing
9. Recommendation and conclusion

III. Research must be theoretical

The theory provides a conceptual model for research and in turn research contribute to theory development e.g. I.Q affects performance. In this case conclusion should be confined to those issues for which the data provide an adequate basis

IV. It must define important terms/concepts. 

The purpose of research should be clearly defined and common concepts used in research should be clearly defined
V. Research should be procedural ( objectivity )
Research should be carefully planned to yield results that are as objective as possible

VI. Good research must be systematic

This means research is structured with specific steps to be taken in specific steps to be taken in specific sequence in accordance with the well- defined set of rule systematic characteristic help to reject the use of guessing and intuition

VII. A good research should be logical.

This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and logical process, which are of great value in carrying out research

VIII. Goal research must be replicable.

This characteristics allows a research results to be verified by replicating the study and there by building a sound for decision. This is to say methods and procedures used are to be described carefully and clearly so that someone else can be able to reproduce it and use its design in a study.

IX. Goal research should be empirical

This implies research is related basically to one or more aspects of the real situation and deals with concrete data which base on observable evidence and research conclusion is researched from the collected data

Common problem encountered in the field /problems hindering conduct at research

1. Transportation problem: eg roads, ( infrastructure to arrive at the study area)
2. Financial constrain (costs):High cost, involve in hiring a vehicle. The enumerator or researcher have to work long distance from one responder to the next etc stationery, accommodation

3. Language barrier: Language can be as constraint during the field work when some respondent may sometimes not understand the research language hence translation of the instrument into local language.

4. Un conducive weather condition (climate factor) eg rainfall or in area like central Tanzania temperature sometimes reaches 340c it become difficult to collect data in such condition

5. Remoteness/inaccessibility of the research site

6. Lack of access of strictly confidential information


Involve the following

I. Choice of a research site

This is the place where research will be conducted or taken depending on the nature/purpose of research and this site should be
– Near
– Accessibility
– Social service must be available

II. Pre- visit or reconnaissance of a research site (To visit before involve on research)

– This help in introducing the researcher to the authorities and respondents, also help researcher to be familiar with a place
– Help a researcher to know the equipment needed
– Help to identity the problem which a researcher may encounter during study
– Help to design the working schedule
– Help the researcher to estimate the cost of study

III. Choice of research tools /methods

This include eg
– Questioner
– Interview
– Checklist group

IV. The researcher welfare consideration

V. Organization of a working schedule. This is a planning of activities to take place at a specific time during research activity

VI. Insure transport and accommodation

VII. Assurance of equipment that should be used in the site

VIII. Drafting a research ( research proposal) it is the systematic plan that bring, together the organized primarily plan that will be needed to accomplish the research process


The research process is a series at activities that are to be followed over time when caring out a research. It consist at steps necessary to effective carry out research and the desired sequencing at these steps

What is to note is that there is no precise number of stage agreed by different school at thought


1. Identification- of the problem
2. Literature review
3. Formation of hypothesis
4. Data collection
5. Data analysis
6. Data recording, presentation and interpretation
7. Testing hypothesis
8. Recommendation and conclusion


This is the first step in research process, it involves knowing the problem, finding the source of the problem.
Research problem refer to some difficulty which a researcher experience in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and obtain a solution for the same
– Any thing that a person finds unsatisfactory, a difficulty of some sort, a state of affair that needs to be changed, anything that is not working as well
– Personnel experience through living in particular area

Sources of research problem

 Personal experience through living in particular area
 Review of literature
 Current social issue
 Deduction from theories
 Practical situation ( land conflict)

Characteristics of research problem

(a) Should be testable
(b) Should be new and not been done before
(c) Should be clear and not vague
(d) Should be educative
(e) Should be a familiar or common problem
(f) Should be affordable interm at cost
(g) Should be interested
(h) Should be researchable


It is a stage involving intensive ready of many relevant literature on the particular problem so as to gain or expand knowledge on the problem to be tackled. Such literature sources includes books, journal’s, newspapers, magazine,articles, letters, research reports (dissertation for academic purpose or thesis ) and other relevant materials etc

“why literature ….” Reasons for reviewing literature

1. To collect more information/data
2. To identify theories that will be tested using the data ( to put the study into perception i.e. Into theory
3. To avoid unnecessary repetition of works which have already been done by other researchers. To avoid plagiarism ( an act of using someone’s ideas) works and pretending that they are yours)
4. To select appropriate research design
5. To enable the researcher to formulate hypothesis

Guideline in making a literature review

 Have a plan in advance
 Start with recent document /finds
 Read in depth in order to determine the relevant feature at your study
 Acknowledge authors of the material
 Avoid reproducing the same material
Therefore Literature review defined as the process of identifying, locating, evaluating, summarizing and incorporating in the study document having materials which are related to the problem under investigation


Hypothesis is the researcher own speculation about the problem in question. It is a tentative answer to the problem in question or intelligent guess for the answer of the problem to be researched
Therefore it is a theory or statement of fact which has not get been proved

-The hypothesis must cover the cause of the problem, effect of the problem, possible solution and recommendation -Hypothesis involving testing of variables and experimentation process.There are two types of Hypothesis

1. Null hypothesis

Is the one stated negatively showing no relationship between two variable Eg. There is no relationship between soil erosion and farming along Uluguru mountain

2. Alternative/substantive hypothesis

It is the one stated positively showing that there is relationship between two variables eg. There is relationship between soil erosion and farming along Uluguru Mountain
Researcher may use either of the two whenever formatting hypothesis for a study

Characterizes of hypothesis

a. It has an element of comparison, where by two or three terms are compared
b. It leaves room for “yes’ or “no”
c. It must be related to the objective of study
d. The quantities words used are easily measurable e.g more,most, majority etc
e. An hypothesis is not obvious

Function of hypothesis

1. Enables to relate theories into observation and observation into theories
2. Presents a suggested solution to the problem
3. Present a simple form of a statement of researcher expectations
4. Give researcher direction to the collection and interpretation of data
5. Provide a framework for reporting conclusion of ones study
6. Refine the research problems

Criteria for a good hypothesis

a. Should be relevant ( relevance) should reflect the topic or problem of study

b. Should be testable ( testability) there must be some way of acquiring evidence that would confirm or disconfirm the hypothesis

c. Should be compatible ( compatibility) should fit well with what we already believe about natural order of things i.e consist ant to statement of fact, theories or laws

d. Should be simple, clear, precise ( simplicity)

e. Should easily predict the consequences/ out come and be applicable to many other types of circumstance ( predictive power)

f. Should be specific and limited in scope

Importance of hypothesis

· It define which facts are relevant and which one are not
· It indicate the type of data required
· The role at hypothesis is to help researcher by limiting area of research
· It determines the most appropriate technique of data analysis
· It contributes to theory development

Research tool or equipments

1. Note book
2. Camera
3. Tape recorder
4. Computer
5. Check list
6. Questioner
7. Ruler


Data is the body of information presented in numerical form. Can be treated either qualitatively or quantitatively
· At this stage the researcher go to the field and collect data physically

There are two basic sources or types of data

(a) Secondary data

These are the data collected by the researcher from existing information such as book, magazine, newspaper, research reports, TV, Radio, photograph, Government reports, census etc
-Is the information obtained from other people’s findings, past publications and official records

(b) Primary data

These are original or firsthand information collected directly by a researcher in the field. This data is collected through interview, questionnaire, observation and FGD(Focus Group Discussion) also key informative.

Ways of collecting primary data/method of data collection


It is a direct discussion between the researcher and the respondent. This method involves verbal interaction between an interviewer and interviewee either face to face conversation or over telephone. Under this, there’s presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in term of oral- verbal responses

Types of interview

1. Structure (formal) interview
In this kind of interview question are prior – prepared and the same question are asked to all the respondents or interviewee.

2. Unstructured (informal)
A researcher here does not have prior prepared questions but he/she has some topic to cover. Respondent are not asked the same questions and they can answer in whatever the way

In interview situation what to consider

· The researcher must understand respondents own situation
· There researcher must grasp the totality of respondent’s situation
· There must be a sense of closeness between researcher and respondent
· Some topic which are very sensitive to react on e.g political issues or social affair, researcher must avoid sensitive/irritative questions.
· The interview must take place between two parties only. There must not be a third party or listener as respondent will not be free to give the right answer
· There must be flexibility i.e. A researcher must be able to put him/herself in the situation of respondent
· Time also must be considered. It is better be working hours Or whatever time found favourable.

Advantage of interview method

1. It is includes or suitable for both literacy and illiteracy respondents making it to have wide coverage. People who can not read or write are accommodated in the sample.

2. They are flexible. Unlike to questioner which can not change within a time but in interview can change

3. The researcher can give clarification when a question is not well understood. It ensure the researcher whether the respondent understood the question or not

4. Direct contact with the respondent enables the researcher to estimate the accuracy of the responses

5. A researcher can get as many answer as possible due to freeness of the respondent.

6. It can be used to collect data on sudden, issues such as diseases outbreak or an accident. Thus it is very useful to journalist

7. There is high rate of responses as compared to questionnaire method. Due to the fact, interviewers and interviewee have direct contact

Disadvantage of interview

1. It is very expensive method especially when large and widely spread geographical sampled is taken

2. Language barrier is a most likely problem that can hinder smooth running of the interview. This results into the need to an interpreter which increase costs

3. Time consuming as the researcher can only talk to one respondent at a time

4. Interview are not effective for researches and respondents with physical disabilities eg dumb and deaf persons

5. Prove to subjectivity there is possibility of the bias of interviewer and that of interviewer

6. It is difficult to conduct where population is scattered as there is always lack of accessibility to respondent. Etc


Questionnaire method uses questions in order together information. Questionnaire:

Refer to the prepared written questions which are handled or given to the respondents on hand, posted or mailed to be answered so as to provide relevant information for a particular problem of research. This type of research instrument is suitable in gathering information over a large sample or geographical area

There are two types of questionnaire

(a) Closed –ended /rigid/structured questioner

This refer to question which are accompanied by a list of possible alternative from which the respondents select the appropriate answer E.g. The answer may be limited to “YES’ or “NO’ True- false etc

The reason for soil erosion in your area is because of:

b)Limbering cutting trees
c) Nature factor

b)open – ended/unstructured question ( guide/direct)

– these also known as lead question. These are types of question that allow the respondents to answers them as seem appropriate
– Here questions are asked and space is provided for respondents to fill in using their own words
– the respondents are given complete freedom of expressing their view

Advantages of questionnaire

1. It save time since several questionnaires may be distributed to many respondents and being filled at the same time

2. It is free from the bias of interviewer

3. It is less expensive even for respondents scattered over a wider geographical area because can be posted

4. Easy to analyze as they give minimum explanation

5. The researcher is able to win the respondent’s trust or any fears that respondents might have

6. Provide enough chance for the respondents to think carefully and give the best answers

7. Adequate and large quantity of information can be gathered

Disadvantage of questionnaire

1. Questionnaire may not be effective when the respondent are illiterate or language barriers

2. There is no opportunity to ask for further information or clarification of some misunderstanding

3. Mailed questionnaires may be lost once they are sent

4. No clean reasons can be given for incomplete responses

5. Accuracy of answers is not assured since the respondent may cheat as the researcher has no direct content

6. Response rate can be quite low

Observation method

It is a type of research data collection method under which the information is sought by looking at a phenomena without asking the respondent or

-Is the systematic method of data collection which involves the use of eyes than voice and ears. Observation is a carefully and accurate watching and recording of the events as they occur in their natural setting. The researcher go to the field with idea of what he/she is going to observe and he/she expect to see everything carefully and closely

-The research should records what he/she sees not what he/she hears

Kind/type of observation method

1. Participant observation method

Researcher becomes part and parcel of people under observation
-this is the one where researcher joins in the daily life of a group or organization he/she is studying for a period of time e.g. 1-3 months, a year depending on what he/she is studying

2. Non- participant observation

Researcher observes without participating in the life of the observed. Here researcher observes actions, behavior and activities of the group he/she is studying without participation in the daily life of the people he/she is studying

Advantages of observation methods

a. If observation done accurately, subjectivity is eliminated because it doesn’t involve the respondent

b. It overcome the language barrier

c. The method is independent of the respondent’s wiliness to respond

d. The method allows full participation of the researcher in the field research process

e. Help in developing observation skill to researcher

f. It is suitable for both literate and illiterate groups

g. Only the relevant data is collected

Disadvantages of observation

a. The researcher is involved in extensive traveling making the exercise tiresome and time consuming

b. It is an expensive method

c. It may not be possible to collect data of past activities

d. Visual impairment may limit effectiveness of this method ( blindness)

e. When people know that they are studied they use to change their behavior

D. Focus group discussion ( FGD)

-It is an intensive free discussion where qualitative data on how people in a group or community think about a given situation issue or problem are collected

-the size of the group is small ranging between five and ten people but preferably 6-8 people who share certain characteristics which are relevant to the study

-FGD is a special type of group in term of the propose size, composition and procedures conducting a carefully planned and design as discussion in order to obtain information on the participants beliefs and perception.

-FGD should be composed of homogeneous members of the target population eg similar age, Education level, profession and gender

-Researcher should have specific topic to be discussed and a recording list of the discussion should be made.

-In FGD researcher becomes facilitator and therefore FGD require good planning and training of group moderator
FGD planning

Focus group discussion consist of

1. Facilitator: who is also a researcher ( moderator)
2. Recorder: Is an assistant of the facilitator taking notes
3. Discussion guide: sub topic
4. Report establishment: involving and making good relationship with people
5. Participants: the respondents.
6. Participant selection: formation of homogeneous based on various Criteria

Discussion Procedure

1. Facilitator expressing the general purpose of the discussion
2. Member introducing themselves in order to obtain preliminary information about the group
3. Facilitator allow a free discussion for every individual
4. Facilitation may ask permission to record some important information
5. Recorder going on taking notes while observing participant
6. Before the end of the free discussion the facilitator should be making sure that all discussion guide are adequately tackled and all important data are obtained

Advantage of FGD

i. The method is less expensive
ii. Save time because take about 45 minutes
iii. It is the best method for identifying and exploring belief ideas or opinions in a community.
iv. Stimulates free discussion where people can talk and express their view clearly and freely (because they feel sense of involvement In the discussion)
v. FGD can produce a lot of information quickly
vi. Respondents acquire speaking,listening and coordinating skill
vii. Researcher became active person in the discussion compare to questionnaire or observation
viii. It’s good for generating hypothesis for larger studies

Disadvantages of FGD

a. Only few respondent may be active in discussion and dominate others.
b. This method is not representative since very small sample size of the population is involved
c. It’s mostly intended to generate views and not getting correct answers
d. Since it is a surprise, members may not be in a good position to participate in discussion and give their contributions.
e. The researcher has less control over the flow of discussion and the results are hard to analyze.
f. Selection of the group may involve subjectivity and biasness

E. measuring method

It is a method which uses height, length ( distance) weight method and angle measuring devices in field data collection. This method is accurate and quick. Measurement of scale include, ordinal, nominal, interval and rations.

F. Rapid appraisal method:

This is another kind of discussion where the researcher invited mass conduct of discussion or meeting


Under this stage the data collected are edited and analyzed to identify relevant and irrelevant data. Data organization means putting the data into some systematic form

– Data analysis refers to the process to examining the coded data critically and making inferences

-Data are tabulated and various satisfied measures such as measure of central tendency are assessed

– The Data are stored by means of paper storage or electronic storage where statistical software package such as word processor, spread sheet or database may be asked

– Under this stage of field research the raw data collected are edited, coded, recorded and analyzed


Data edited, coded, recorded and analyzed in the previous stage are now presented in various statistical form such as graphs, maps and charts. Also photograph field sketching, tabulation and tallying may be used

Therefore data presentation refers to the way of arranging data to make it clearly understood.

Interpretation is the done using various criteria suitable or reflecting on the problem of the research and the formulated hypothesis of the research


The original hypothesis is then tested against the research results and if the fact/data support the hypothesis generalization may be made. If the hypothesis appears wrong the researcher goes back to the field and start afresh and ways of collecting data must be changed


Research gives/his/her opinion and then gives conclusion of all that he has observed


– Sample
This is a part of population, it is a set of selected elements from a population for study. It must be selected elements from a population for study. It must be selected according to principles of sampling and this will make it move representative of total population

Is the process of selecting small number of people or objects or units(sample) to represent the entire population, Example to checking the soil type it may be taken small amount of soil the amount taken is said to be sample

– Population or universe
Is the group of individuals ,items, objects from which samples taken for a particular study
It is the targeted group

– Element
These include individual persons, objects or units about which information is collected

– Sample size
This refers to the total number of item or individual to be selected from the population to constitute a sample. The larger the sample size the lower the likely error in generalization to the population. Also the larger the sample size the more the money and time needed to carry our the researcher

– Sampling design
Refers to the part of the research plan that indicates how cases are to be selected for observation

-Sampling frame
This is a complete or reliable list of all elements in a population from which a sample will be selected or drawn. It is a complete list of every unit in the universe or population

– Variable
This is a logical grouping of the attributes like sex or gender composed of two attributes ie males and female
-Variable are divided into two groups i.e independent and dependent variable

– Parameter
This is a summary description of given variables in a population

Characteristics of a good sample

1. 1.It must cover wide geographical area
2. It must have enough number of representatives so as to show clearly what is in population
3 It must have a wide range of types of elements to reduce biases
4 It must be selected by the researcher him/her self as he/she know the kind of respondent she/she need and methods he/she will use to obtain it

Importance of sampling in field research

i. Sample can save time since can produce result from within short and relative time
ii. it is cheap in terms of cost I serve budget constrains
iii. sampling provide a greatest scope in terms of variable that may be studied
iv. sampling is scientifically and statistically justifiable
v. sampling is an alternative way when population under study contain large number of items’ and occupy a vast geographical area


i. Probability sampling
ii. Non- probability sampling


-It is a random selection is a sample
– This is a sampling method where selection at sample is done randomly by chance .Here each individual in a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample

Types of probability sampling

1. Sample random sampling
2. Systematic random sampling
3. Stratified sampling
4. Mulit stage sampling
5. Cluster sampling

a. Sample random sampling

This gives every possible combination element in a population equal chance of being included in the sample.
It is chance sampling technique where each of every items or individual in the population has an equal opportunity in the inclusion the sample

Method of simple random sampling

I. By lottery method
II. The table of random number
III. Computer method : it is similar to table random number but under this number are picked by computer

b. Systematic sampling

Is the type of probability sampling by selecting of individual or items on a given regular interval. It is very applicable when population sample is large and the target population is evenly distributed
For example formula of sampling interval K = N/n
N- Total number of population
n- sample size K- sampling Interval
to obtain the sample using systematic sampling Question. If the total population is 1000 individual,and the number of people who must be in the sample are 100, what will be sampling interval
I. Calculate sampling interval or fraction
K=Fraction(K) or sampling interval N = 1000 n = 100
II. Picking the starting point by any method of simple random sampling
III. Picking systematically with the specific interval (k) by adding (k) to the pick number until the required single is achieve

c. Stratified sampling

It is a type of probability sampling involving a selection of study sample by dividing the targeted population into the homogeneous sub group(strata) and then simple random sampling in each sub group

E.g suppose the target population consist of 700 male sub population and 300 female sub population
Create male and female sub sample provided that 100 total population sample is required

i). Calculate the total number of the population
ii). Finding the sampling ratio
Given by
iii). Calculate sub sample of male and female by taking sampling ratio multiple by sample population of each
male = 1/10 x 700 = 70 male
Female = 1/10 x 300 = 30 female
Ø Example 2 ,3000 students, 100staff, 50 non teaching staff,
Using stratified sampling technique prepare sample for a particular studying of 10%

Steps Calculate sub samples

i. student 10/100 x 3000=300
– teachers 10/100 x 100=10
Non teacher 10/100 X 50=5
– Therefore 300 + 10 + 5 = 315
ii. the sample of the particular study is 315

advantages stratified

 It is more representative than simple random sampling of the same size drawn from the same population

 Conclusion from stratified sample are more general sable than simple random.

 The technique is complex because it need researcher to analyze the population carefully to discover its true composition

 Chance that researcher get wrong stratum,subgroup are great

d. Cluster/area /spatial sampling

Is the type of at probability sampling used when target population is displaced over a wide geographical area. Under this the total area at study is divided.

The total area into a number at smaller non-overlapping areas, generally called geographical clusters Then a number of smaller areas are randomly elected
All units in these small areas are included in the sample

e. Multi stage sampling

This is further development of the idea cluster sampling .This technique is meant for big inquiries extending to a considerably large geographical area like an entire country

Under this, the first stage may be to select large primary sample unit such as state, then region then district,then town and finally certain families within towns i.e the second sample is selected or drawn from the first sample, the third sample from the second sample etc

example: population of 2500 people is spread over Temeke district.A sample of 600 household need to be selected from this population for study

-Researcher will list down all divisions in Temeke district. Let us say there 10 dimension so in this stage he may take five division( of them)

– List down all the wards in those five division let us say there are six (6) wards in each division i.e 6 x5 = 30 wards. in the second stage, sample wards = 10 wards

-List down villages or streets in these 10 wards and the are 10 street or village in each ward. Thus 10 x10 =100 villages in the third stage the villages = 25 sample village

– List down house holds of each village and let us say there 100 house hold house holds
In the fourth stage sample the household = 500 households
Thus our sample is 500 household


Is the type at sampling which does not give each items or element in target population equal chance to be included in sampling

Types of non-probability sampling

a. Accidental/chunk/convenience sampling
b. Snow-ball sampling
c. Purposive/judgmental
d. Quota sampling

I. Accidental sampling

Under this method, the researcher Collect data from responds for a given research study he/she meets accidentally during the period research

II. Snow ball sampling

The researcher starts his/her research with small number of respondents who are available and ask them t o call for other who will fit in the study

III. Purpose/judgment sampling

Is the type of Non- probability sampling where researcher purposeful chooses responder whose in his/her own opinion thought are to be relevant of the study

IV. Quota sampling

In stratified sampling the cost of taking random samples from individual strata is often expensive that interviewer are simply given quota to be filled from different strata, the actual selection of items for sample being left to the interviewers judgment

– The size of the quota for each stratum is generally, proportionate to the size that stratum in the population
( If that stratum is ¼ of the total population then the researcher take a ¼ of individual in that particular stratum


A person who does not plan is always planning to fail.So whenever we want to do something we have to plan how to go about it

– The word” proposal”originated from the word “propose” which means to put forward, suggest or advice. Proposal therefore refer to suggestion, intention , plan or scheme

– A researcher proposal may be defined as a systematic plan, suggestion or request which bring together in organized form the preliminary scheme that will be required to fulfill a particular research project

– The research proposal is used to provide to guideline to the research during the research process and also provide a means of evaluating the research study

– The research proposal is considered to be a plan since puts forward for consideration one’s scheme of intent


1. A research proposal is used to administrative purpose. It is a basis for written agreement or contract between the researcher and management (sponsor ). A proposal acts as a record for agreement

2. It helps the researcher to think over important issues about the study. ( about what he/she want to do)
( the what, why, how, where and to whom the research to be conducted are thought out and answered at this stage of developing proposal

3. Before conducting a research sometimes a researcher need to get go ahead from his client. A client can be from the organization you are working with, sponsor or university. Eg NGO’s Providing funds for research will not sponsor any form of research until they have received and approved a detailed research proposal.

4. Proposal are used to make a choice among the competing suppliers ( researchers) and to influence positively the decision to fund the proposal study

Format of content of a research proposal

It is divided into 3 parts
1. Preliminary pages
2. The main body of the research proposal
3. Back page
1. Preliminary
– Title page – title of the study
– Research name
-Degree requirement
– Awarding University or institution
– Year of study Main body

1.0 Chapter I : Introduction

1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research hypothesis/question
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Conceptual or theoretical framework

2.0Chapter II : Literature review

This chapter is devoted to a survey of the body of knowledge that already exist and identifying the existing gaps in knowledge which the research intended to fill
– It should point out how the problem under investigation is related to the previous research finding
– It should put into consideration some theories that are elated to the problem under investigation

3.0 Chapter III: Research methodology

– It indicate the area of the study
– Population
– Research design
– Sample and sampling technique with will be used
– Data collection method or ( strategy )
– Data analysis technique
– Budget, time frame e.t.c

Back pages References

This is the list of all sources that were consulted in writing the proposal.
(they are not numbered, are written in alphabetical order using surname)
Qualities of an effective research proposal
It should clearly state:
– What is being proposal or what the project is about
– How it will be carried out
– When it will be carried out
– How much it will cost

· Research methodology

Refer to the study of how research is to be conducted involving the development and analysis of the theories, principles, approaches and view to be employed in a particular research
– It concerned with the rational and the philosophical assumption that underlie a given study
– It cover study area, study population, sampling design as well as data gathering and analysis
It involving the principle or rules underlying series of process, admit and task to be performed in a given research study


It is conceptual structure within which research is conducted or a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study

– It is the plan structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answer to research question. Research design specific the objectives’ of the study, methodology and techniques to be applied for achieving the specified research objective

– In a nut shell the design of research provided a systematic plan of the procedures for the researcher to follow
It is blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data

Features of good Research design

1. Flexible
2. Appropriate
3. Efficient
4. Economical
5. Accurate ( give minimum experimental error)
6. Yielding maximal information

Types of research design Case study research design :-

1. Case study design

is an in-depth comprehensive study at a social or natural phenomena in any branch of knowledge

-Case study aims at studying everything about something rather than something about everything

-It purpose is to understand the interaction between factors that explain the present status or the development of the study unit over a period of time

– It involves the study of a single study unit like a family, a community, a group, a class and a specific geographical area

– The case study design can be classified as an intensive investigation of a single unit or group

Advantage of a case study design

1. It is flexible with respect to data collection method

2. It provide an opportunity for the intensive analysis of many specific details that are overlooked in other methods or designs

3. Case study an extend virtually to any dimension of the topic to be studied

4. Case study may be conducted practically to any kind of social and natural settings

5. It gives to the researcher a wide range of insights into human life

6. It is useful for testing the hypothesis about the structural and procedural characterizes of a specific social on geographical unit

Disadvantage of case study design

1. It is not suitable in generation at facts and findings ( limited generalization ability) this is because studies are studies of stray cases which are not sufficient enough for making meaningful generalization of larger studies

2. Time consuming

3. It is inadequate for an analysis of a macro problems.

4. There is a danger of researcher’s over- confident

2. Survey research design

It is a broad based investigation of a phenomena through administration of data collection instrument to a target population or a sample of respondents selected from the target population

– It is extensive investigation of a particular research problem covering a large number of study units

– It is useful for testing hypotheses about large social or geographical aggregates and allows generalization of a study finding if based on a representative sample, the survey of research design if appropriate for making descriptive studying of large population

– Only two methods of data collection can be used. The methods are interview and questions

3. Experimental research design

It is a type of research design involving random classification at the respondents or items understudying into experimental group and control group and then conducting an experiment through exposing the experimental group to unusual conditions

– These bases on experimental groups of people or items. Two similar groups are used where one becomes experimental and another control group to see if the deference is worth while

– After the experimental group being given special treatment the researcher is to observe any change that might be taking place to the experimental group or making comparison between the control and experimental so long as the two groups were assumed to be initially equivalent

It consist of

I. Experimental group:
It is the one exposed to some novel Or special condition
II. Control group:
it is the one exposed to normal existing condition
III. Treatment:
It is an object or specific condition subjected to the experimental group to as to see whether an induce or influence some changes to this experimental group

4. Descriptive research design

It is a research design used to describe the state of affairs as if exists involving the fact finding and about people’s attitude, opinion, habits or any variety at natural or social issue under studying
( state of affair – situational condition)

5. Historical research design

It is a research design concerned with the study of past records and other information sources with a view of reconstructing the origin and development of an institution, phenomena or movement or system and discovering the trend in the past
– It is descriptive in nature describing fact on the past situation
– This design depends upon inference and logical analysis of recorded data and indirect evidence rather than upon direct observation

6. Correlation research design ( causal comparative)

– This is the research design which enables the researcher to assess the degree of relationship that exists between two or more variable

– It analyses the correlation between two or more variable under study eg compare the geography find exams results of a group of students who frequently attended geography periods and those who rarely attended geography period

7. Cross- cultural research design

This is a research design used to compare the behavior patterns of different culture. Using this design a researcher can perceive how various cultures experience given economical, political, educational and social outcomes.
E.g.:- you can compare urban and rural secondary school students level of computer literacy


This is the last stage in conducting a field research whereby the finding, obtained in the research are documented or published and being handed over to the appropriate authority for action to be taken or kept for other to see it,

It has 3 parts

(a) Preliminaries
(b) Main body
(c) Reference

(a) Preliminary

 Cover page
 Fill the page
 Certification/declaration
 Copyright
 Acknowledgement
 Dedication
 Abstract
 Table of contents
 List of tables and figures
 Abbreviation and acronym

(b) Main body

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 . Background of the problem
1.2. Statement of the problem
1.3. Purpose of research study
1.4 . Objective of research study
1.5 . Research question /hypothesis
1.6 . Significance of the study
1.7 .Limitation or scope office study
1.8 .Conceptual framework

Chapter 2: literature review
Relevant sub heading

Chapter 3; Research methodology

· Study area
· Targeted population
· Sample size
· Sampling strategic
· Research design
· Data collection methods
· Data analysis plan

Chapter 4: Research findings, presentation and discussion

Chapter 5: summary , conclusion and recommendation
· Summary of the study
· Conclusion
· Recommendation

(c)Back page

(iii) Reference
– Appendix




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